Egypt

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By Ralph A. Austen

Through the heyday of camel caravan traffic--from the 8th century CE arrival of Islam in North Africa to the early twentieth-century construction of eu colonial railroads that associated the Sudan with the Atlantic--the Sahara used to be one of many world's nice advertisement highways, bringing gold, slaves, and different commodities northward and sending either synthetic items and Mediterranean tradition southward into the Sudan. Historian Ralph A. Austen right here tells the extraordinary tale of an African global that grew out of a couple of thousand years of trans-Saharan buying and selling. possibly the main enduring impression of this exchange and the typical cultural reference aspect of trans-Saharan Africa was once Islam. Austen strains this religion in its quite a few forms--as a felony approach for regulating alternate, an concept for reformist hobbies, and a motor vehicle of literacy and cosmopolitan wisdom. He additionally analyzes the effect of ecu in another country growth, which marginalized trans-Saharan trade in worldwide phrases yet motivated its neighborhood progress. certainly, trans-Saharan tradition not just tailored to colonial alterations, yet frequently thrived upon them, closing a powerful strength into the twenty-first century.

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Trans-Saharan Africa in world history

Throughout the heyday of camel caravan traffic--from the 8th century CE arrival of Islam in North Africa to the early twentieth-century construction of eu colonial railroads that associated the Sudan with the Atlantic--the Sahara used to be one of many world's nice advertisement highways, bringing gold, slaves, and different commodities northward and sending either synthetic items and Mediterranean tradition southward into the Sudan.

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In the 1700s, another exclusively eastward and slave-centered route came into prominence, the notorious Darb-al-Arba’in (Forty-Day Road) from Darfur to southern Egypt. 26 Trans-Sah ar an A f r ic a in Wo r l d Histor y Like all trading systems, commerce across the Sahara involved goods moving in two directions: from the Mediterranean to the Sudan and from the Sudan back north. However, it is the exports out of subSaharan Africa, especially gold, rather than the goods coming in that explain the role of the Sahara in global history.

It would be misleading, however, to say that the Arab leadership sought to exploit the Saharan instead of the Mediterranean resources of North Africa. During the late seventh and early eighth centuries, their energy was devoted mainly to conquering the coastal cities. The crowning achievement of this drive was the invasion of Spain in 711. Yet most 20 Trans-Sah ar an A f r ic a in Wo r l d Histor y of the Muslim forces that crossed over to Europe by this route were Berbers, as was their commander, Tariq ibn Ziyad, for whom Gibraltar is named (Jebel Tariq: “Mountain of Tariq”).

One, on the southern desert edge between Wadan, Timbuktu, and Gao, was focused on gold and connected to towns all across North Africa. The other, seeking slaves from Kanem and its later southward extension, Borno, had links only to the Fazzan. After 1500, however, the cities of Kano and Katsina, founded by the Hausa people of the Central Sudan, became important Sudanic trading centers, and routes connecting them, as well as Kanem-Borno, went northward in all directions. In the 1700s, another exclusively eastward and slave-centered route came into prominence, the notorious Darb-al-Arba’in (Forty-Day Road) from Darfur to southern Egypt.

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