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By David Seyford Ruegg

This booklet is anxious with the advanced and certainly tricky query of the connection among Buddhism and Brahmanism/Hinduism (Vedism, Shivaism, Vishnuism, etc.) in India, and among Buddhism and native non secular cults in Tibet and sure different elements of the Buddhist international together with Japan. even if they're sincerely now not exact twins introduced forth by way of the Indian spiritual soil, Buddhism and Brahmanism/Hinduism are heavily comparable siblings. therefore, questions come up about the functionality and value of the so-called "Hindu" gods and godlings as they seem in sizeable elements of the Buddhist culture, in addition to the conventional "local" divinities in different Buddhist lands. during this connection, borrowing and syncretism have frequently been stated through writers at the topic. yet in truth those spiritual interrelationships seem to be significantly extra advanced and engaging than this: in a lot of Buddhist suggestion they own either salvific (soteriological) and gnoseological implications. the idea that of symbiosis turns out appropriate right here because it expresses those distinctive interrelationships extra competently. moreover, different recommendations, either etic and emic, are thought of during this context. In Buddhist suggestion, the structurally hostile but complementary emix innovations of the "mundane" (or "worldly") and the "supramundane"(or "transmundane") have frequently outlined the spiritual courting lower than dialogue. accordingly, during this quantity this pair of different types is explored the laukika and the lokottrara, or the 'jig rten pa and the 'jig rten las 'das pas, as they're respectively stated within the traditions of India and Tibet drawing on a couple of Indian and Tibetan resources.

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27 . 6. The common Indian religious ground or substratum and the opp osition worldly/mundane (laukika) : supramundane/ transmundane (lokottara) What accounts for the fact that gods, divinities and celestials bearing the same (or very closely related) names are to be found in Buddhism as well as in other religions of India? As far as Indian Buddhism is concerned, the answer, briefly stated, may well be that these entities are Indian, that Buddhists were Indians, and therefore that Buddhism was in the first place an Indian religion that made use of widely spread Indian ideas .

1-1 20; H. Bechert, ' Mythologie der singhalesischen Volksreligion' , in: H. ), Worterbuch der Mythologie, 1. ), p. 584; Lokesh Chandra, ' GaI,lesa in Japan ' , in: Indo-Asian studies 3 ( 1 977) , pp. 1 2 1-46; R. L. ), Ganesh, Studies of an Asian god (Albany, 1 9 9 1 ) , which includes C. Wilkinson, ' The Tantric GaI,leSa: Texts preserved in the Tibetan canon ' , pp. 235-75, and J. Sanford, 'Literary aspects of Japan' s Dual-GaI,lesa cult' , pp. 287-335 (discussing the god ' s connexion with AvalokiteSvara); and G.

Buddhism and nature (Tokyo, 1 9 9 1 ) . 34 Examples of points of differ­ ence between Buddhism and Jainism could of course be multiplied. , H. von Glasenapp, Die Lehre von Karma in der Philosophie der Jainas (Leipzig, 1 9 15); N. Tatia, Studies in Jaina philosophy (Banaras, 1 95 1 ); E. Frauwall­ ner, Geschichte der indischen Philosoph ie, ii (Salzburg, 1 956), p. 279 ff. ; J. McDer­ mott, Development in the early Buddhist concept of kamma/karma (New Delhi, 1 9 84); F. Enomoto, ' On the annihilation of Karman in Early B uddhism ' , in: Transactions of the International Conference of Orientalists in Japan, no.

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