By Alan J. Kuperman
In 1994 genocide in Rwanda claimed the lives of not less than 500,000 Tutsi—some three-quarters in their population—while UN peacekeepers have been withdrawn and the remainder of the realm stood apart. Ever on account that, it's been argued small army intervention may have avoided lots of the killing. within the Limits of Humanitarian Intervention, Alan J. Kuperman exposes such traditional knowledge as myth.
Combining exceptional analyses of the genocide's development and the logistical boundaries of humanitarian army intervention, Kuperman reaches a startling end: whether Western leaders had ordered an intervention once they turned conscious of a national genocide in Rwanda, the intervention forces might have arrived too overdue to avoid wasting greater than 1 / 4 of the 500,000 Tutsi finally killed. Serving as a cautionary message in regards to the limits of humanitarian intervention, the book's concluding chapters tackle classes for the future.
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Extra info for The limits of humanitarian intervention : genocide in Rwanda
To document the progression of this open-source intelligence on the genocide as it was occurring, I conducted a review of international reporting by American, British, French, Belgian, and Rwandan media, leading human rights groups, and UN officials. This review includes the following: all daily editions of The Times, The Guardian, and Le Monde from April 6 to April 30, 1994; results of a Lexis/Nexis search of all stories about Rwanda in the Washington Post and New York Times from April 6 to May 14, 1994; and all reports in the CIA’s Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) for Africa and Western Europe from April 6 to April 30, 1994, which includes radio and newspaper reports from Rwanda (both rebel and government sources), Belgium, Britain, and France.
13 However, in common usage “genocide” has come to denote the intentional destruction of a significant portion of a group’s population. Death tolls of 20,000 are not uncommon in civil wars and generally are not considered genocidal. In order to make a determination of genocide in a specific case, one has to examine the details of the violence, including whether the victims were noncombatants, were killed deliberately (rather than in crossfire), were members of a single group defined by ascriptive characteristics, and were being targeted exclusively because of their identity rather than for suspected actions such as supporting antigovernment rebels.
However, the RPF also had a strategic motivation for announcing this conclusion at such an early date—to justify its opposition to renewed UN military intervention that it feared could interfere with a military victory by the RPF. 17 Subsequently, Tutsi who had avoided the initial massacres continued to be killed gradually at roadblocks or by roving bands of armed Hutu. 18 The pattern of killing in Kigali city also differed significantly from that in the rest of the country. During the first two days the extremist Hutu worked *chap01-03 5/15/01 11:04 AM Page 19 from prepared lists to perpetrate a highly organized and thorough assassination campaign, starting with opposition politicians and moving to prominent liberals such as human rights advocates.