By Alex Miller
This enticing and obtainable creation to the philosophy of language presents an immense consultant to 1 of the liveliest and such a lot hard components of analysis in philosophy.
Interweaving the old improvement of the topic with a thematic review of the several techniques to that means, the ebook offers scholars with the instruments essential to comprehend modern analytical philosophy. the second one variation comprises new fabric on: Chomsky, Wittgenstein and Davidson in addition to new chapters at the causal thought of reference, attainable worlds semantics and semantic externalism.
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But, from thesis 9, it is possible to grasp the senses of “The Morning Star” and “The Evening Star” without knowing their references. So, from theses 11 and 2, it is possible to grasp the sense of the sentence “The Evening Star is the Morning Star” without knowing its truth-value. So this explains how it is possible to understand a sentence without knowing its truth-value, which is just to explain how sentences can be informative. The introduction of sense thus enables Frege to solve the problem of informativeness.
Well, what are we referring to in using “London is south of Glasgow” within a belief context such as (3)? Intuitively, we are referring to John’s thought that London is south of Glasgow. That is to say, we are using the sentence to specify the content of a thought. Now, if we substitute the embedded sentence in (3) with one which expresses the same thought (as opposed to merely having the same truth-value), is it possible for (3) to change truth-value? If not, the identification of the sense of a sentence with the thought it expresses will respect thesis 16.
It turns out, on empirical investigation, that Venus satisfies this condition, so it follows that the name “The Evening Star” refers to the planet Venus. Now, someone who knows which descriptive condition an object has to satisfy in order to count as the reference of “The Evening Star” understands the name; but it does not follow that he knows what the reference of the name actually is. I can know that whatever object it is that appears at such and such a place 28 SENSE AND DEFINITE DESCRIPTIONS in the sky at such and such a time in the evening is referred to by “The Evening Star” without knowing which object that is: I may not have done any astronomy.