By Siobhan Chapman (auth.)
Paul Grice (1913-1988) is better identified for his mental account of that means, and for his idea of conversational implicature, even supposing those shape simply a part of a wide and numerous physique of labor. this is often the 1st ebook to think about Grice's paintings as a complete. Drawing at the diversity of his released writing, and likewise on unpublished manuscripts, lectures and notes, Siobhan Chapman discusses the improvement of Grice's rules and relates his paintings to the most important occasions of his highbrow life.
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If every statement containing a denoting phrase could be explained as a complex proposition not involving a denoting phrase as a constituent, bivalent logic could be maintained. Like Frege, Russell’s ﬁrst and primary philosophical interest was in mathematical logic. His interest in the analysis of language and therefore in meaning grew out of a concern for analysing the language in which the ideas of logic are expressed, and ultimately for reﬁning that language. Russell’s Cambridge colleague and almost exact contemporary G.
Locke suggests that our reluctance to accept this conclusion, our inclination to insist that he is still the same person, can be traced to a lack of reﬂection about the use of the pronoun ‘I’. In this case, the amnesiac Locke would in fact be using ‘I’ to refer not to the person, but to the man. Locke does not himself offer any examples, but the following illustrates his point. If, having lost his memory and then been instructed about his own past life, he were to state ‘I was exiled by James II’, he would be using the pronoun to refer only to the same man, or living creature, as he is now, not to the same person.
It shows some striking similarities to ordinary language philosophy. In Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein argues that language is better deﬁned in terms of the uses to which it is put than the situations in the world it describes. Words are tools for use and, just as a tool may not always be used for the same function, meaning is not necessarily constant. Coining one of the most enduring metaphors in the philosophy of language, he argues that a word is best described as having a loose association of meanings that are essentially independent but may display certain ‘family resemblances’.