Nationalism

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By Joan Cocks

From Kosovo to Québec, eire to East Timor, nationalism has been a recurrent subject of extreme debate. it's been condemned as a resource of hatred and battle, but embraced for exciting neighborhood feeling and collective freedom. Joan Cocks explores the ability, chance, and attract of nationalism through reading its position within the considered 8 politically engaged intellectuals of the 19th and 20th centuries: the antagonist of capital, Karl Marx; the critics of imperialism Rosa Luxemburg, Hannah Arendt, and Frantz Fanon; the liberal pluralist Isaiah Berlin; the neonationalist Tom Nairn, and the post-colonial writers, V. S. Naipaul and Edward acknowledged. Cocks not just sheds new gentle at the complexities of nationalism but additionally unearths the tensions that experience encouraged and stricken intellectuals who've sought to steer lives among indifferent feedback and political passion.

In vigorous, conversational prose, Cocks assesses their remedy of questions comparable to the mythology of nationwide identification, definitely the right to nationwide self-determination, and the morality of nationalist violence. whereas finally severe of nationalism, she engages sympathetically in spite of its defenders. via illuminating the hyperlinks that uncommon minds have drawn among proposal and motion on nationalism in politics, this stimulating paintings offers a wealthy beginning from which we ourselves may well imagine or act extra correctly whilst confronting a phenomenon that, in primary and difficult methods, has formed our world.

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4 The same magnetism of life understood as surface and depth that we have seen in the intimate sphere holds good in the public sphere, using that term in its broadest sense to cover all other social relations. Although the very definition of the public sphere rules out as an element of its magnetism thoughts, words, and deeds that are shuttered from general view because they are private, the other elements reemerge here with increased force. The sedimentation of thought and practice over time; the tension between the past and the memory of the past, the present and constructions of the present; the pressure of an inner structure on empirical practice; the veiling of significant stakes—all are magnified in the public sphere because of its panoramic sweep, which takes in not two or three people but two hundred, or two thousand, or two million.

10 That if an oppressed class could be won by lies then surely it would be won by truth is a curious deduction, and only an extraordinary rationalist could make it. However, it shows the same respect for the intelligence of the popular masses of modern society that Marx’s and Engels’s words always do show, as long as they do not refer specifically to the peasantry. This would count as a significant qualification in light of the number of peasants in the world and the role that peasant culture plays as a source of metaphors for nationalist ideology, were it not for the fact that the peasants were already a doomed class in Marx’s and Engels’s imaginations.

31 These concrete contradictions between political and civil society, between the state as the reflection of social unity and of social division, and between unalienated and alienated social power, weigh against Engels’s claim, so often assumed to be a snapshot of Marx’s political theory, that “in reality . . ”32 They consequently weigh against any equation of Marx’s theory with this reductive idea. At his most suggestive, Marx reveals the civic nation to be a double reality of unity and division with complex implications for modern politics that he never traces out.

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