By Enda McVeigh, John Guillebaud, Roy Homburg
The Oxford guide of Reproductive medication and relations making plans, moment variation offers crucial useful details within the care of the adolescent and reproductive age women and men. Evidence-based and concise, this guide is the must-have source for all practitioners, trainees, and scholars in sexual and reproductive healthcare. absolutely up-to-date for the second one version, this instruction manual now contains extra sensible information, algorithms and diagrams, a brand new bankruptcy on recurrent miscarriage, in addition to accelerated informaiton on issues equivalent to PCOs and hirsuitism. It follows chronological. Read more...
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Additional resources for Oxford handbook of reproductive medicine and family planning
17-hydroxy-progesterone if family history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. If overweight or frankly obese • Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure. • Fasting glucose and insulin. • SHBG and fasting lipid proﬁle. • Oral glucose challenge test. 47 48 CHAPTER 5 Polycystic ovary syndrome Prevalence • PCOS is the most common female endocrinopathy, affecting 5–10% of women in their reproductive years. • PCOS is associated with 75% of all anovulatory disorders causing infertility.
ACTH receptors in the plasma membrane activate adenylate cyclase with production of the second messenger, cAMP. The effect of ACTH on the production of cortisol is particularly important, with the result that a classic feedback loop is prominent in regulating the circulating levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), ACTH, and cortisol. Mineralocorticoid secretion from the zona glomerulosa is stimulated by an entirely different mechanism. 1 Peptide hormones and associated steroid hormones Peptide hormone Steroid hormone Luteinizing hormone (LH) Progesterone and testosterone Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Cortisol Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Oestradiol Angiotensin II/III Aldosterone STEROID HORMONE BIOSYNTHESIS REACTIONS 17 B 3A C D Cholesterol 5 6 HO Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis P450ssc P450ssc P450ssc Pregnenolone Pregnenolone Pregnenolone 3␤-DH ⌬4,5-isomerase P450c17 3␤-DH ⌬4,5-isomerase 17-OH pregnenolone Progesterone 17-OH pregnenolone P450c21 3␤-DH ⌬4,5-isomerase 11-deoxycorticosterone Corticosterone P450c21 11-deoxycorticosterone aldosterone 11-deoxycortisol P450c11 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) synthase P450c11 CH2OH CH2OH H3C C O OH HO H3C H3C Cortisol O C O HO H 3C Sulphotransferase 3␤-DH ⌬4,5-isomerase DHEA-S CH2OH CC O O O O 17,20 lyase P450c11 P450c21 17-OH progesterone HO H3C P450c17 Progesterone Corticosterone Aldosterone H3 C O H3 C O Androstenedione Fig.
Steroid metabolism is therefore important not only for the production of these hormones, but also for the regulation of their cellular and physiological actions. INTRODUCTION Cholestrerol CH3 CH CH3 CH3 HO Fig. 1 Structure of cholesterol. CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH CH3 19 20 CHAPTER 2 Steroid hormones Steroid hormone biosynthesis reactions The particular steroid hormone class synthesized by a given cell type depends upon its complement of peptide hormone receptors, its response to peptide hormone stimulation, and its genetically expressed complement of enzymes.