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By Jeffrey Szuchman

For many years, students have struggled to appreciate the advanced courting among pastoral nomadic tribes and sedentary peoples of the close to East. The Oriental Institutes fourth annual post-doc seminar (March 7-8, 2008), Nomads, Tribes, and the kingdom within the historical close to East, introduced jointly archaeologists, historians, and anthropologists to debate new ways to enduring questions within the learn of nomadic peoples, tribes, and states of the prior: What social or political bonds hyperlink tribes and states? may perhaps nomadic tribes show components of urbanism or social hierarchies? How can the instruments of old, archaeological, and ethnographic examine be built-in to construct a dynamic photo of the social panorama of the close to East? This quantity provides a number info and theoretical views from various areas and classes, together with prehistoric Iran, historic Mesopotamia and Egypt, seventh-century Arabia, and nineteenth-century Jordan.

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6). 1; Barnard 2007; Tomber 1998, 1999). Eastern Desert Ware has now been studied in some detail (Barnard 2006; Barnard and Rose 2007), including chemical analysis of the ceramic matrix and the organic residues in the vessels (Barnard, Dooley, and Faull 2006; Barnard and Magid 2006; Barnard and Strouhal 2004), as well as ethnographic and experimental archaeology (Barnard 2008). It was concluded that Eastern Desert Ware was probably made and used by one of the indigenous groups in the area at the time, which is concurrent with earlier assumptions based on more cursory studies of the material (Luft et al.

Grave goods usually include pan-grave pottery (fig. 3), mostly hand-made bowls characterized by thin walls, thick rims, and cross-hatched incisions (Bietak 1966; Kemp 1977; Williams 1983). Other gifts include weapons, bracelets and necklaces of seashell beads, sometimes with characteristic “spacers” (Bietak 1966: pls. 32, 36; Hafsaas 2006: pl. 7), and, often in a secondary pit, one or more painted skulls of goats, gazelles, or cattle (fig. 4; Friedman 2001, 2004; Hafsaas 2006). Pan-grave cemeteries are usually small, although cemeteries with more than 100 pan-graves have been described at Dibeira and Ashkeit, near the Second Cataract, and at Mostagedda (north of Abydos).

Inferring links between those is often too simplistic to be heuristic and we must be prepared to find that it may prove impossible to pinpoint the material culture of all the groups mentioned in the historical sources, or to connect all archaeological finds to a specific name from those sources. Acknowledgments Sincere thanks are due to Jitka Barochová, Manfred Bietak, Roswitha Egner, Sharon Herbert, Knut Krzywinski, Anwar Abdel-Magid, Richard Pierce, Elfriede Reiser-Haslauer, Pamela Rose, Valery and John Seeger, Steve Sidebotham, Jana Součková, Eugen Strouhal, Roberta Tomber, Isabella and Derek Welsby, and Henry Wright, for making the necessary material available; to Ram Alkali, Alek Dooley, Kym Faull, Hector Neff, and Dave Verity, for their help with the analysis of Eastern Desert Ware; to Anna Barnard-van der Nat, Kym Faull, Hector Neff, and Chip Stanish, for their logistical and financial support; to Jacco Dieleman, Jitse Dijkstra, and Claudia Näser, for their comments; and to Willeke Wendrich, for her unending encouragement and love.

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