Download Monitoring Polymerization Reactions: From Fundamentals to by Wayne F. Reed PDF

By Wayne F. Reed

Offers new ideas to optimize polymer reactions

With contributions from top macromolecular scientists and engineers, this publication presents a pragmatic consultant to polymerization tracking. It permits laboratory researchers to optimize polymer reactions through offering them with a greater knowing of the underlying response kinetics and mechanisms. additionally, it opens the door to stronger industrial-scale reactions, together with greater product caliber and decreased destructive emissions.

Monitoring Polymerization Reactions starts with a evaluation of the elemental components of polymer reactions and their kinetics, together with an outline of stimuli-responsive polymers. subsequent, it explains why convinced polymer and response features must be monitored. The e-book then explores quite a few useful issues, including:

  • Principles and functions of vital polymer characterization instruments, reminiscent of mild scattering, gel permeation chromatography, calorimetry, rheology, and spectroscopy
  • Automatic non-stop on-line tracking of polymerization (ACOMP) reactions, a versatile platform that allows characterization instruments to be hired concurrently in the course of reactions on the way to receive a whole checklist of a number of response features
  • Modeling of polymerization reactions and numerical approaches
  • Applications that optimize the manufacture of industrially vital polymers

Throughout the e-book, the authors offer step by step ideas for implementation. moreover, considerable use of case reports is helping readers comprehend the advantages of quite a few tracking ideas and ways, permitting them to decide on the simplest one to compare their needs.

As new stimuli-responsive and "intelligent" polymers stay built, the facility to observe reactions turns into more and more vital. With this e-book as their advisor, polymer scientists and engineers can take complete benefit of the newest tracking techniques to optimize reactions in either the lab and the producing plant.

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Additional resources for Monitoring Polymerization Reactions: From Fundamentals to Applications

Example text

This finding shows that the PDI for a steady-state free radical polymerization terminated exclusively by disproportionation should be ~2. Termination by combination complicates the situation slightly because an additional probability must be considered. In this case, chains of length n and m, respectively, with a combined chain length i, must first each be made and then combine to form the inactive polymer with length i. Because there are different combinations of chains with lengths n and m that can combine to form i, a summation must be done to calculate the mole fraction ci: Recalling the expressions for each of the moments of the chain length distribution (Eqs.

The reaction of p-phenylenediamine with terephthaloyl chloride results in the high performance p-aramid Kevlar. While Kevlar is expensive because processing requires the use of anhydrous sulfuric acid as solvent, its outstanding mechanical and thermal properties led to its use in demanding applications, including personal armor, bicycle tires, and racing sails. When the corresponding meta monomers are used, the resulting polymer is Nomex. Nomex is more easily ­processed than Kevlar and since its fibers have excellent fire retardant properties, it is the material of choice for protective equipment for firefighters, fighter pilots, and ­racecar drivers.

Aiche J 1967;13:1087–1091. [50] Tobolsky AV. Dead-end radical polymerization. J Am Chem Soc 1958;80:5927–5929. [51] Tobolsky AV, Rogers CE, Brickman RD. Dead-end radical polymerization. 2. J Am Chem Soc 1960;82:1277–1280. [52] Bamford CH, Barb WG, Jenkins AD, Onyan PF. The Kinetics of Vinyl Polymerization by Radical Mechanisms. Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1966. [53] Williams RJJ. Statistics of free-radical polymerizations revisited using a fragment approach, 1. Bifunctional monomers. Macromolecules 1988;21:2568–2571.

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