By John Michael Cooper
Mendelssohn, Goethe, and the Walpurgis evening addresses tolerance and reputation within the face of cultural, political, and non secular strife. Its aspect of departure is the Walpurgis evening. The evening, sometimes called Beltane or may possibly Eve, was once supposedly an annual witches' Sabbath that based round the Brocken, the top top of the Harz Mountains. After exploring how a notoriously pagan social gathering got here to be named after the Christian missionary St. Walpurgis (ca. 710-79), John Michael Cooper discusses the Night's remedies in numerous heavily interwoven works by way of Goethe and Mendelssohn. His ebook situates these works of their speedy own contexts, in addition to between remedies by means of a wide range of alternative artists, philosophers, and political thinkers, together with Voltaire, Lessing, Shelley, Heine, Delacroix, and Berlioz. In an age of decisive political and spiritual clash, Walpurgis evening turned a heathen muse: a resource of religious notion that was once neither particularly Christian, nor Jewish, nor Muslim. And Mendelssohn's and Goethe's engagements with it provide new insights into its function in eu cultural heritage, in addition to into problems with political, spiritual, and social id -- and the family members among cultural teams -- in trendy global. John Michael Cooper is professor of track at Southwestern college and writer of Mendelssohn's "Italian" Symphony (Oxford collage Press).
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Additional info for Mendelssohn, Goethe, and the Walpurgis Night: The Heathen Muse in European Culture, 1700-1850 (Eastman Studies in Music)
As enthusiastic idolaters, they naturally valued their fathers’ religion no less than their freedom. Charles summoned all his forces to conquer them. At the same time, he wanted to convert them to Christianity. This entangled him in a war that lasted thirtythree years. The Saxons were defeated many times, but after every one of Charles’s victories and every peace concord they would take up their weapons anew, and after every apparent acceptance of Christianity they would revert to their idolatry.
The dense forests, steep, craggy slopes, and narrow valleys of the range constituted some of the most challenging terrain faced by the advancing Christian front, which otherwise had to deal mostly with level ground and comparatively low mountains. Settlement seems to have begun only in the mid-tenth century, well after the de facto end of Charlemagne’s Saxon Wars, and most of the Oberharz (the upper northeast end of the range) remained only sparsely populated for several more centuries. The summit of the Brocken itself was deemed unattainable to all humans except experienced hikers for centuries more.
For the emergence of literary culture divided the already politically fragmented German populace into two distinct subcultures: the comparatively small culture of letters, which constituted an economic and political elite, and the significantly larger one that still relied primarily or exclusively on oral communication. Religion was (after the German language itself) the most important cultural activity common to both of these classes. 4 Nevertheless, the Church remained one of the few institutions whose presence suffused the daily life and commercial history of both popular and elite cultures and remained foundational to the sense of identity of individuals and groups within both classes.