Download Making Cars More Fuel Efficient: Technology for Real by International Energy Agency PDF

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Additional resources for Making Cars More Fuel Efficient: Technology for Real Improvements on the Road

Sample text

S. Federal Test Procedure’s urban and highway cycles failed to capture the effect of more aggressive drivers on measured vehicle emissions led the CARB to develop a new cycle called the Unified Cycle. 13 The UC is intended to represent aggressive city driving, with high rates of acceleration and deceleration, high maximum speeds but low average speeds, while the FTP (city) is a more conservative urban driving cycle, with starts and stops but lower acceleration and deceleration rates. The key parameters of both cycles are presented in Table 4-1.

The 1990s saw the introduction and use of Silica (rubber with the addition of silicate) tyres. It is claimed that using Silica in treads to replace Carbon Black enables rolling resistance to be reduced without a corresponding reduction in wet grip or other tyre performance measures. S. 18 In March 2001, Goodyear announced a new tyre technology, BioTRED, that they claim has important environmental advantages as well as “remarkably lower rolling resistance” according to company literature. Goodyear claims that this technology lowers rolling resistance by 8% while increasing wet grip and also reducing the tyre weight by 5%.

Design changes to the cooling system to improve engine warm-up from cold start have been demonstrated. One concept widely tested in the early 1990s was a “heat battery” that utilized a special canister containing a salt to store heat when the vehicle was shut down. Upon restart, the engine coolant is circulated through the heat battery to rapidly warm up to operating temperature. This technology can be useful in cold temperature/short trip situations to reduce shortfall. A simpler technology is the “dual cooling circuit” concept where the cylinder head and cylinder walls have separate cooling circuits, so that engine warm up time can be reduced significantly.

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