Semantics

Download Lingua Universalis vs. Calculus Ratiocinator: An Ultimate by Jaakko Hintikka PDF

By Jaakko Hintikka

R. G. Collingwood observed one of many major initiatives of philosophers and of historians of human suggestion in uncovering what he known as the final word presuppositions of alternative thinkers, of alternative philosophical hobbies and of whole eras of highbrow historical past. He additionally famous that such final presuppositions often stay tacit initially, and are came across purely by means of next mirrored image. Collingwood might were extremely joyful by means of the distinction that constitutes the general subject matter of the essays gathered during this quantity. not just has this dichotomy ofviews been one ofthe mostcrucial watersheds within the complete twentieth-century philosophical notion. not just has it remained mostly implicit within the writings of the philosophers for whom it mattered such a lot. it's a really Collingwoodian presupposition additionally in that it's not apremise assumed through assorted thinkers of their argumentation. it's the presupposition of a question, an assumption to the impact yes basic query could be raised and responded. Its function isn't belied by means of the truth that a number of philosophers who replied it somehow appear to be mostly unaware that the opposite resolution additionally is smart - if it does. This Collingwoodian query may be formulated in a primary tough approximation via asking even if language - our genuine operating language, Tarski's "colloquiallanguage" - is common within the experience of being inescapable. This formula wishes every type of motives, however.

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Additional info for Lingua Universalis vs. Calculus Ratiocinator: An Ultimate Presupposition of Twentieth-Century Philosophy

Example text

Now the concept of truth is one of tbe most important relations, perhaps the most important one, that can obtain between language (a Iinguistic expression) ud the world. Such relations are called semantical relations, ud tbe totality of such relation linking a given language to reality is called i15 semantics. Accordingly, the question wbetber trutb is IS TRUTH INEFFABLE? 21 inexpressible is a faeet of the more general question whether semantics is inexpressible. And this question is in turn subordinate to an eYen more sweeping problem.

Some other remarks of Heidegger's do not touch the gist of the matter, either. For instance, he makes much of the involvement of human action in meaning and in meanings. This is nothing but the pragmatist motivation of the universalist viewpoint which was discussed above and found relatively supemcial and unconvincing. The value of such views of Heidegger's to us is again merely a historical one: they are symptoms of the presence of the universalist syndrome in Heidegger. In the light of what has been said, it is no exaggeration to suggest that Heidegger's hermeneutical method stands and falls with the thesis of the inexpressibility of conceptual truths.

Such dependent quantifiers are illustrated by sentences like (*) (\fx)(3y)S[x,y] where the truth-makingvalue ofy depends on the value ofx. Frege's mistake appears from bis interpretation of quantifiers as higher-order predicates. Such an interpretation cannot do justice to sentences like (*) semantically. Furthermore, this general neglect of the idea of quantifier dependence led Frege to a specific mistake. In formulating his formation rules, Frege arbitrarily excluded (of course without being aware of what he was doing) certain perfectly possible (interpretable) patterns of dependence and independence between quantifiers.

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