By Alfred D. Chandler, Bruce Mazlish
Representing a path-breaking attempt to examine multinational enterprises within the around, this publication emphasizes their scope, heritage and improvement, cultural and social implications, and governance difficulties. beginning with a primer on MNCs, 8 chapters are dedicated to numerous elements, together with international elites. Their procedure makes readers realize that MNCs are usually not in basic terms fiscal entities, yet are a part of a posh interaction of things. In flip, learning MNCs will bring about reexamination of the globalization method.
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Additional info for Leviathans: Multinational Corporations and the New Global History
When we consider the geographic distribution of only the very largest MNCs, the corporations become much more concentrated in the United 6. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). World Investment Report 2002 (New York: United Nations. 2002). 7. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). World Investment Report 1992 (New York: United Nations. 1992). 8. 3. xml CB791-Chandler 0 521 84061 9 March 4, 2005 16:28 A Primer on Multinational Corporations 25 States and Japan, although this has also been changing in recent decades.
Although these conventional factors explain the historic growth of most large corporations, the most significant competitive advantage of MNCs in recent years is considered to be international mobility – the ability to transfer resources across national borders. In the decades immediately following World War II, the “internationalization” of corporations, primarily American, took place through the establishment of foreign affiliates intended to serve the markets in which they were located. However, with trade liberalization and falling transportation costs, firms increasingly looked abroad not only for new output markets but for low-cost production opportunities.
A common metric used to measure the activity of MNCs in foreign markets is foreign direct investment (FDI). FDI is investment by an entity, such as a corporation, in productive activities occurring in any nation other than its declared home. 10 FDI then nearly tripled between 1984 and 1987 and continued to grow steadily at a rate of around 20 percent per year during the first half of the 1990s. There was a dramatic growth spurt in FDI during the late 1990s at a rate of more than 40 percent annually before it began to fall significantly in 2001 as a result of the global economic slowdown.