By Gordon Williamson
This, the 1st of 2 volumes on Germany's international warfare II U-boats, strains their improvement from the early U-boats of the Kaiser's military, the prohibition on Germany having U-boats following the Armistice in 1918 and the following Treaty of Versailles, the key improvement of U-boats utilizing a 'cover-firm' in Holland, culminating within the formation of the first U-boat Flotilla in 1935 with the fashionable variety II. The operational background part contains examples from the periods variety VIIA, kind VIIB, VIID, VIIE and VIIF prior to focusing on the mainstay of the U-boat arm, the sort VIIC. Comparisons also are made with the normal allied submarines, their strengths, weaknesses and U-boat strategies.
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Extra resources for Kriegsmarine U-boats 1939-45
The surf boat reached the ship half full of water. The sailors quickly bailed out the boat and loaded twenty-two women and children in the boat for the return trip. The metal boat reached shore half full of water, yet its cargo was safe. On the second trip outbound the current set strong to the north and it took three men on shore to hold the bow to the Georgia. The sailors watch- You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher.
Henry Wardell, a recognized authority on shipwrecks, led the committee. Ottinger and the committee set about designing a suitable surf boat. The end product resembled the standard New Jersey surf boat, a boat that had Viking lines brought by early Swedish colonists of south Jersey. 17 When the time came for Ottinger to build his surf boat, the Board of Trade spoke highly of Joseph Francis. The captain brought his model surf boat proposal to Francis. He asked for a larger craft than Francis’s standard metal lifeboat.
Once loaded, the surfmen pulled it back ashore. When all the passengers landed, Holmes suggested that the crew take down some of the sails and spars to build a tent on shore. Later the crew sent provisions ashore. Soon the rescued, safely ensconced in a huge makeshift tent, sat by fires eating provisions sent from the shipwrecked vessel. The metal life surf boat proved its ability. 32 Selah Strong, keeper of Fire Island Light, New York, wrote that he used Francis’s surf boat to board the Minerva when she grounded off Oak Island in 1850.