By Gould R.F. (ed.)
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The partially negatively charged ends of CO dipoles strongly polarize water molecules near to the polyamide chain, changing the charge distribution on their atoms and lowering the number of hydrogen bonds. Chapter 4 is a broad consideration of complex formations of PVP and other poly-N-vinylamides interacting with inorganic anions, dyes, synthetic and natural macromolecules and physicochemical principles of the interaction. ) is given in Chapter 5. Aspects considered are those concerning the formation of ultrafiltration membranes by immersion of a polymer cast solution containing PVP in water and the processes occurring during the phase separation of a membrane-forming polymer + PVP system, the operation mechanism of reverse osmosis (RO) polyamide membranes through which these membranes function using new data obtained by studying poly-N-vinylamide hydration.
It is based on interaction between lactam and acetylene at 130180°C mediated by alkaline catalysts, which are predominantly potassium lactam salts [1, 3]. The reaction is carried out both in solvents (toluene, dioxane or other) and in the absence of solvent under high pressure (~25 atm) at 100105°C. Lactam conversion in the reaction is 5060%. After removal of the unreacted amide, product yield reaches 8083%. The reaction is described in a large number of patents which are reviewed in refs [2, 3].
Rigid conditions of reaction cause formation of a number of by-products of complicated structure, poorly removed from the monomer and requiring an additional purification stage. As the vinylation reaction does not proceed completely (yield 5060%), the residual unreacted pyrrolidone is rectified, purified and distillated for the preparation of pure product which re-enters the reaction. Therefore, there is an obvious necessity of development of an alternative VP synthesis procedure allowing the preparation of high-quality VP without additional processing.