By Martin Breunig
This publication provides a version for the combination of spatial info for 3D Geo-Information structures (3D-GISs). Former Geo-Information structures are limited to 2nd house. They execute the mixing of spatial info by means of conversion of vector and raster representations. This, in spite of the fact that, ends up in conceptual problems as a result of the different paradigms. After an creation to the heritage and structure of Geo-Information platforms this e-book examines spatial representations in 2nd and 3D area concerning their suitability in 3D-GISs. A three-level thought of area serves as a foundation of a version for the combination of spatial details. It likewise takes into consideration the geometry, metrics and the topology of geo-objects.
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Extra info for Integration of Spatial Information for Geo-Information Systems
2 A d v a n c e d Building Blocks The basic building blocks of spatial queries can be embedded into advanced building blocks. We distinguish between the spatial selection, the spatial projection and the spatial join. The building blocks can also be coupled with standard building blocks of the relational algebra without spatial reference like the selection or the projection (see example 3 below). By a spatial selection we understand a selection of geo-objects from a geo-object set that is specified by one or several spatial predicates.
The topological space can be defined over environment axioms or over open sets. Because of the importance of closed and open sets in the following context, we here introduce the second definition. 1: (M; IZ) is called topological space 2, if Ix is a subset from re(M) with the following properties3: (01) ~ E g, M c g , (02) O 1,O 2 e l . ~ OlnO 2eft, u Oel~OEp I. An open disk is an example for an open set that will be inmxiuced below. 2. "(M; It)" is to be read as "M provided with the topology g".
It provides the explicit representation and management of the geometry and topology of geo-objects. Particularly for the representation of three-dimensional surfaces and volumes, we transfer the e-complex into a convex e-complex (ce-complex). Thus the space between the e-complex and the convex hull is filled with "virtual tetrahedra'. As we know from computational geometry, geometric algorithms on convex objects are less complex. They additionally gain in efficiency by the explicit use of the topology of the ce-complex.