By Tan, Seang Lin
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Biol Reprod 1992; 46: 1196–204. 34. Motro B, Bernstein A. Dynamic changes in ovarian c-kit and Steel expression during the estrous reproductive cycle. Devel Dyn 1993; 197: 69–79. 35. Packer AI, Hsu YC, Besmer P et al. The ligand of the c-kit receptor promotes oocyte growth. Devel Biol 1994; 161: 194–205. 36. Thomas FH, Ethier JF, Shimasaki S et al. Folliclestimulating hormone regulates oocyte growth by modulation of expression of oocyte and granulosa cell factors. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 941–9.
ROS can have devastating effects, reacting with mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, proteins, and lipids, causing structural and functional instability, and can ultimately lead to apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress14 due to its close proximity to the electron transport chain, which is compounded by a lack of histones15 and defense and repair systems16. The mitochondrial genome has a high exon content, so mutations are more likely to exert a detrimental effect on gene function.
Secondly, increased activity of the pentose phosphate pathway75 is METABOLISM DURING OOGENESIS The primordial germ cell The primordial germ cell contains few mitochondria24 and a store of glycogen83, suggesting that glycolysis may contribute to energy production. There are many energetic demands within these cells, with cytoplasmic blebbing and pseudopodia formation84 aiding movement of the primordial germ cell along the gonadal ridge. 026 pmoles of pyruvate oxidized per hour. 00121 pmoles of glucose oxidized per hour.