Aeronautics Astronautics

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By John J. Bertin

First-class reference resource for estimating re-entry warmth so much. After studying the textual content you're left with the sensation that you just 'have a superb deal with at the topic matter'. that is approximately the simplest you could say for this type of ebook. The few examples that disguise stagnation element temperature estimation have a couple of steps that may be elevated to higher illustrate the place the numbers got here from and the way they're used. No complains the following. notwithstanding.

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Nitrogen Dissociates • N2-)2N 300 X "o 200 m \ 100 °-- 0 0 i Oxygen Dissociates i O2-)20 \ C 0 °-- \ Ionization of Atoms N - ) N++e 0-) O++e - \ I 10 : 20 30 40 Velocity (k ft/s) Fig. 14 D o m i n a n t c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n s for e q u i l i b r i n m a i r in t h e s t a g n a t i o n r e g i o n , as t a k e n f r o m Ref. 12. 20 H Y P E R S O N IAEROTHERMODYNAMICS C Nitrogen dissociation occurs at velocities in excess of 15,000 ft/s. Finally, ionization of atoms becomes important at velocities in excess of 30,000 ft/s.

O , " 60 FU|Iyl m e f l l d N- i 4 110" t .. . Ilyel" I '~" 1 lO'b Shock thickens - . - 8x10 "4 I / -~ 2x10 "4 -- / ~'. ~ 30: I. ,,,-, -I 8x10 "4 I I I ~ I I 1 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Velocity "J10"3 55 (kft/s) Fig. 8 Boundaries for high-altitude flowfield regimes, as t a k e n f r o m Ref. 8. GENERAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HYPERSONIC FLOWS 13 the viscous region becomes comparable to that within the boundary layer. The limits of applicability for the continuum-flow model and for a discrete particle model, as presented by Moss and Bird, 9 are reproduced in Fig.

And the vehicle rapidly descends deep into the atmosphere maintaining hypersonic velocity. As a result, the stagnation pressure can be roughly 50 times the standard sea-level atmospheric value. Not only will these differences have a dramatic impact on the loads acting on the vehicles, but they will impact the Reynolds number, which in turn influences the time at which boundary-layer transition occurs and, therefore, the convective heat transfer to which the vehicle is subjected. However, the times of flight are very different also.

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