By D. Eaves
This instruction manual reports the chemistry, production equipment, houses and purposes of the artificial polymer foams utilized in such a lot purposes. furthermore, a bankruptcy is incorporated at the basic ideas, which follow to all polymer foams. there's additionally a bankruptcy at the blowing brokers used to extend polymers and a bankruptcy is on microcellular foams - a comparatively new improvement the place purposes are nonetheless being explored. The chapters are written by means of specialists within the box.
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T. , S-T. Lee, Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, USA, 2000, 251. 4. M. 6. 5. F. Rowland and M. Molina, Nature, 1974, 249, 8. 6. pdf 7. gov/ozone 8. int/comm/ environment/ozone 9. P. Dournel and L. Zipfel, Proceedings of Polyurethane Expo 2001 Conference, Columbus, OH, USA, 2001, 325. 10. P. Dournel and L. 24. 11. C. Bratt and A. 15. 12. org 13. T. Lee and K. 16 14. B. M. F. Baldwin, inventors; MIT, assignee; US 6,051,174, 1998. 34 Blowing Agents 15. D. Pierick and R. 19. 16. M. Gale, British Plastics and Rubber, 2000, May, 4.
For example, in PU foam, mixtures of a liquid and a gaseous blowing agent is often used to balance the flow, 24 Blowing Agents dimensional stability and thermal resistance requirements for use as insulation for appliances, construction, etc. Low boiling blowing agents such as HCFC-22, HFC-134a, and isobutane have been used to improve flow and dimensional stability of PU foam blown with more insulating gases HCFC-141b, HFC-365mfc and pentane, respectively . Similarly, blends of blowing agents are often used to solve processing issues.
5 lists the properties of these HFC. 7 Atmospheric lifetime, years has caused introduction of a non-flammable blend with HFC-227ea (CF3CHFCF3) in the weight ratio of 94:6 . Zero ODP of HFC means that it is permissible to use them in all applications including non-insulation. However, use of HFC as a PBA is not as widespread as that of CFC in the 1980s and 1990s or of HCFC in the 1990s or 2000s. , hydrocarbons, CO2), and high GWP. High GWP is an especially controversial issue and regulations related to global warming are divergent and emerging.