By Arthur H. Landrock
This publication is meant to be a resource of functional details on every kind of plastic foams (cellular plastics) in use, together with the hot structural plastic foams. Elastomer (rubber-like) foams also are thought of. The ebook is meant basically should you require a non-theoretical, authoritative, easy-to-use instruction manual within the topic quarter. it's going to be of price to fabrics engineers, plastics fabricators, chemists, chemical engineers and scholars. famous experts have written numerous chapters and elements of chapters of their fields of craftsmanship. The ebook is geared up in this type of approach that info on a wanted topic are available quickly. An strange characteristic is a finished directory of all recognized standardization files (test tools, practices, and specifications), together with a few overseas criteria. each one record contains a short description of its contents.
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The initiators can be other types of active hydrogen-containing compounds, such as aliphatic or aromatic amines. The functionality and equivalent weight of polyether polyols can be 22 Handbook of Plastic Foams widely varied. , rigid, flexible and semi-flexible elastomers, coatings, adhesives, and resins. The most widely used catalyst for the stepwise ring-opening polymerization of alkylene oxides is potassium hydroxide. , the formation of ally1 alcohol brought about by the isomerization of propylene oxide.
Carbodiimide foams and polyimide foams. These foams do not melt and turn to char by heating. Most thermosetting foams are prepared by the simultaneous occurrence of polymer formation and gas generation. This is the principle of preparation of thermosetting plastic foams, as shown in Figure 1. Monomer(s) , Blowing agent - \ ( Mixing ) -+ Catalyst Surfactant Polymer Formation and Gas Genertion 3 + f ( Foam ) / Figure 1. Mechanism of thermosetting foam preparation 11 12 Handbook of Plastic Foams In principle any kind of polymer-forming reactions can be employed for foam preparation.
The major polyols for preparing various urethane foams are polyether polyols. Polyester polyols are used only in specific applications. The advantages of polyether polyols are: choice of functionality and equivalent weight; the viscosities are lower than those of conventional polyesters; production costs are cheaper than for aliphatic polyesters; and resulting foams are hydrolysis-resistant. Polyether polyols are prepared by the anionic polymerization of alkylene oxides, such as propylene oxide and/or ethylene oxide, in the presence of an initiator and a catalyst, as shown in the following equation: R’ I R-(OH), + (f x n) CH,-CH + R[-OCH,--CH-),-OH], \/ 0 where R-(OH), represents initiators which are low-molecular-weight polyols having 2 to 8 functionality, shown as follows (functionality is in parenthesis): ethylene glycol (2), gly cerol (3), trimethylolpropane (3), 1,2,6-hexanetriol (3), triethanolamine (3), pentaerythrytol (4), aniline (2), toluenediamine (4), alpha-methyl glucoside (4), sorbitol (6), sucrose (8).