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Download Handbook of energy audits by Albert Thumann PDF

By Albert Thumann

Thoroughly up-to-date, this guide should still give you the entire info you must determine an power audit programme on your facility. Accounting techniques, electric, mechanical, construction and procedure structures research, existence cycle costing and upkeep administration are all coated intimately. an extra bankruptcy examines the function of power auditing in environment powerful power procurement innovations lower than deregulation. The publication additionally good points case reviews on an leading edge strength retrofit programme and effort evaluate utilizing FEDS. Contributions from a number of specialists within the box complement the author's personal presentation.

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The production quantity need not be in terms of units produced; it could be number of patrons of a movie theater, customers in a store, passengers in a transportation system, hours or other unit of time in which the facility is used, miles traveled, etc. In any case, the "product" should be clearly defined in the mind of the system's user and should be a common denominator of the business being conducted. A product line may be a process as long as energy and production output are discretely measured.

Those considered most important are changes in volume and/or mix of products produced, weather, pollution control requirements, alternative fuels (using more or less expensive fuels for the same application than those used in the base period), conservation, and price. All these factors or variances for analysis in both dollars and BTU should be isolated as shown in Table 2-13. Table 2-13. Variance Analysis of Differences Between 1990 and 1991VarianceContributorIn Thousands of $Billions of BTUVolume/Mix $1,054 418 Weather (53) (27) Pollution 48 23 Other 403 142 Price 1,719 Conservation (877) (513) Alternative Fuels 88* Net Impact$2,29443*Nonadditive Memo Item Page 19 Of the 43 billion BTU and $2,294,000 difference between 1990 and 1991, $1,054,000 and 418 billion BTU are the result of producing more products or a change in product mix.

The monetary impact of weather is the impact calculated as above times the cost per unit of energy last year-to-date. That is to say, the impact of weather changes on energy use or cost is the difference between this period's weather and last, times the heating/cooling energy efficiency in the last or base period. The result ignores improvements in efficiency (identified later as energy conservation effects) and inflation (identified later as price effects), and isolates the effect of weather. Page 32 Pollution Control Impact The impact of the energy increase or decrease to control pollution in the current period versus any other time period is simply the difference in the energy used in the two periods.

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