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By Mario Monti (auth.), Donald E. Fair, François Léonard de Juvigny (eds.)

The papers accrued during this quantity are these offered on the 11th Colloquium prepared through the Societe Universitaire Europeenne de Recherches Financieres (SUERF) which happened in Madrid in October 1983. The Society is supported by way of various important banks, advertisement banks and different monetary and company associations, by means of treasury officers and by means of teachers and others drawn to financial and fiscal difficulties. on the grounds that its institution in 1963 it has constructed as a discussion board for the trade of informa­ tion, examine effects and concepts, valued through teachers and practitioners in those fields, together with important financial institution officers and civil servants accountable for formulat­ ing and using financial and monetary rules. an enormous task of SUERF is to arrange and behavior Colloquia on sub­ jects of topical curiosity to individuals. The titles, locations and dates of past Col­ loquia for which volumes of the accrued Papers have been released are famous at the final web page of this quantity. Volumes weren't produced for Colloquia held at Tarra­ gona, Spain in October 1970 below the name "Monetary coverage and New increase­ ments in Banking" and at Strasbourg, France in January 1972 lower than the identify "Aspects of ecu financial Union".

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Extra resources for Government Policies and the Working of Financial Systems in Industrialized Countries

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The economic programme of the present German government which makes reduction of unemployment a primary goal, quite logically also includes a reduction of the public sector's share in GNP as one of its goals, and says: "A reduction of the public sector's share in GNP is bound to revitalise the private economy". But there are also other reasons for aiming at a reduction of the public share in GNP: - The increase in taxes and social security contributions has in a number of countries reached the limit of what large parts of the population consider tolerable witness the growth of the underground economy in many countries!

23 IV. Over-indebted governments The other major development which over the last few years has driven public finance to its limits has been the disproportionate growth of government deficits and public indebtedness. Since the middle of the 1970s, in most countries government revenues have lagged behind the rapid growth of public expenditure. An impressive example is provided by the countries of the European Community. Here the gap between revenue and expenditure rose between 1970 and 1981 on average from less than 1 per cent to 5 per cent of GNP.

3 1970 1973 1975 Actual Balance as a percentage of GNP/GDP Actual and Adjusted General Government Financial Balances United States Japan Germany France United Kingdom Italy Canada Austria Belgium Denmark Finland Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden Country Table 1. w -r:- 44 - interest payments on the public debt have been among the most rapidly growing expenditure components and in five countries now exceed the deficit of the public sector. As part of the rise in interest payments merely compensates for the erosion of the real value of the public debt, it might be deducted from public expenditure.

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