By Siegfried Breyer
German U-Boat sort XXI
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Extra resources for German U-Boat Type XXI
Chapter 2 figure 2-6. Master shipwright of the VOC shipyard in Amsterdam, Jan Rijcksen, and his wife, Griet Jans. Painting by Rembrandt van Rijn, Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace, London, 1633 (RCIN 405533). The Royal Collection © 2008, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. figure 2-7. Detail showing ship’s central spine and master frames. Painting by Rembrandt van Rijn, Royal Collection, Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace, London, 1633 (RCIN 405533). The Royal Collection © 2008, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
2-2). The characteristically narrow main deck and poop contrasted sharply with the bulky cargo hold below; the maximum breadth of the ship lay below the waterline. Flutes had a shallow draft and a relatively high length-to-beam ratio of 4:1 or more, although this was also characteristic for other ship types. 4:1. The Dutch managed to construct flutes at a much lower price than that of merchant vessels of other European countries. Violet Barbour demonstrated that a flute built in the Netherlands cost 800 pounds sterling, whereas a similar ship would cost 1,300 pounds sterling in England.
According to Witsen, only one master floor with a pair of futtocks was placed on the bottom, but there could have been more. The shape of the frame floor was defined by the hull curvature, and that of the first futtocks by the curvature of the bilge. The shipwright did not define this curvature by drawing a midships mold but based it on the shape of the bottom. Figure 2-9 illustrates the design of the master frame: horizontal line a-d corresponds to the deck level, the curves are drawn from points e and h with a pair of compasses, f and l indicate the height of the bottom, y is the keel, and k denotes the location where the keelson and floors are placed.