By John Francis Guilmartin
Galleons and Galleys КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Название: Galleons and Galleys Автор(ы): John F. Guilmartin Издательство: Cassell Год: 2002 ISBN: 0304352632 Страниц: 226 Формат: PDF в RAR Размер: one zero one Мб Язык: EnglishThe flip of the sixteenth century observed the beginning of a revolution in sea warfare--one lengthy within the making yet, as soon as began, remarkably rapid. the driver: gunpowder. The central brokers: galleys (long, low boats propelled mostly by way of oars) and galleons (heavy, sq. rigged crusing ships). without warning, Europe, previously on a technological par with India and China, ruled the waters. They crossed the Atlantic, reached the United States, and have become international powers. A superbly written account of the age conveys precisely how a rustic like Portugal may well identify outposts from South the United States to the Pacific, how Christian fleets wrested keep an eye on of the Mediterranean from the Ottoman Empire, and why the "invincible" Spanish armada met with catastrophe in its try to invade England. A bright page-turner.Hotfile Depositfiles eighty five
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By contrast, the arquebus and musket were handy for shooting over bulwarks and through apertures, and at short ranges arquebus balls smashed through pavisades and light planking better than arrows. Although the musket's heavy recoil and weight restricted its use to picked men, its raw stopping power was unequalled. The characteristics of archery and small arms were complementary: the Venetians used archers to cover arquebusiers while they were reloading, and fighting men aboard North African galiots carried both composite bows and muskets on occasion.
The treasure fleets were successful in expanding Chinese suzerainty for a time, but behind their success lay a dark reality, for the Ming emperors who launched them proclaimed a ban on private seaborne trade that forced the vast majority of Chinese deep-sea mariners into poverty, smuggling or pirac~ The last loophole was closed in 1435, when the treasure fleets were banned. The ban was partially lifted in 1567, but by then the design of large, ocean-going war junks had been lost, a victim of the mandarins' suspicion of outside cultural influence.
Demanding European tactical scenarios drove the Spanish development of individual firearms. Conquistadors used light crossbows against Amerindians to good effect long after Spanish infantry had abandoned them in Europe, and crossbows were required aboard Spanish merchant ships on the Atlantic run for THE WEAPONS OF WAR AT SEA 1300-1650 another half-century. Moreover, social and cultural factors were at work. The French were slow to adopt individual firearms, clinging to the crossbow into the 1600s.