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Download Fundamentals of Hydro- and Aeromechanics by Ludwig Prandtl, O. G. Tietjens, Engineering PDF

By Ludwig Prandtl, O. G. Tietjens, Engineering

The author’s pioneering experiments laid the root for using theoretical hydromechanics and hydrodynamics in functional engineering difficulties. This quantity offers Tietjens' recognized growth of the author’s lectures: statics and kinematics of drinks and gases, dynamics of non-viscous drinks. Proofs use vector research.

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Extra resources for Fundamentals of Hydro- and Aeromechanics

Sample text

At 20°C). Condensation can occur for example if damp air is expanded adiabatically. Unsaturated air is soon saturated by adiabatic cooling since an adiabatic expansion produces a fall of temperature which brings down the saturation limit more rapidly than the volume of air expands. Condensation occurs as soon as the limit is passed, and a part of the water condenses on any dust particles present. It is to be noted that further adiabatic expansion will produce a slower rate of temperature decrease because of the heat of condensation liberated.

It will be seen that as the cooling of the surface continues, higher and higher strata in the air are affected (chiefly by long-wave radiation absorbed by water vapor). We have here an example of increasing temperature with increasing height, a state known as an inversion and, as we have seen, such a state is particularly stable. In mountainous districts the valleys are often filled up in the evening with cold air which streams down from the slopes and then flows farther down the valley (valley wind).

3°CjlOO ft is the greatest that can be observed in a stable air region, because larger gradients mean instability. 30°CjlOO ft as the approximate adiabatic temperature gradient, and plotting the height h as a function of the temperature t, we obtain a series of straight lines corresponding to different surface temperatures. In Fig. 17 a length along the abscissa corresponding to 3°C has been made equal to a length representing 1,000 ft along the ordinate, and the curves therefore cut the axes at 45 deg.

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