By Philippe Sands
This assortment is predicated on a lecture sequence prepared together through Matrix Chambers and the Wiener Library in London among April and June 2002. prime specialists current papers studying the evolution of overseas legal justice from its origins at Nuremberg via to the proliferation of foreign courts and tribunals established on the Hague this day. The lectures will supply a number of views at the topic for someone attracted to overseas felony law--from experts to non-specialists.
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These public interests are as follows: Four generations of the Krupp family have owned and operated the great armament and munitions plants which have been the chief source of Germany’s war supplies. For over 130 years this family has been the focus, the symbol, and the beneﬁciary of the most sinister forces engaged in menacing the peace of Europe. During the period between the two World Wars, the management of these enterprises was chieﬂy in Defendant Krupp von Bohlen. It was at all times, however, a Krupp family enterprise.
First, we have to admit that the crimes prosecuted in Nuremberg were not actually formulated as crimes with the speciﬁcity we would expect in a criminal trial. 11 Secondly, this complicated thing called international law worked, not only to create obligations for states, but also to create duties for individuals from public and private life, as well as obligations for their organisations. How has this complexity been addressed in the ﬁfty years since Nuremberg? The Tokyo trial in 1946 dealt with essentially similar crimes, although the Charter for that Tribunal was more terse in its listing of crimes.
These developments may seem now eminently sensible, even unremarkable, but the situation is complex for a lawyer, because the same act and the same provision of international law give rise to multiple responsibilities. , p. 41. 34 responsibility of the individual for violating the same law. But the complexity does not end there. In Nuremberg there was a determination, not only to try individuals, but, at the same trial, to declare certain organisations to be criminal organisations.