By Jaakko Hintikka, Lauri Carlson (auth.), F. Guenthner, S. J. Schmidt (eds.)
The essays during this assortment are the outgrowth of a workshop, held in June 1976, on formal techniques to the semantics and pragmatics of average languages. They rfile in an astoundingly uniform method the improve ments within the formal research of typical languages because the overdue sixties. The avowed objective of the' workshop used to be in truth to evaluate the development made within the software of formal tips on how to semantics, to confront various techniques to actually an analogous difficulties at the one hand, and, at the different, to teach the way in which in concerning semantic and pragmatic factors of linguistic phenomena. a number of of those papers can in truth be considered as makes an attempt to shut the 'semiotic circle' by way of bringing jointly the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic houses of yes structures in an explanatory framework thereby making it greater than seen that those 3 elements of an built-in linguistic conception can't be as smartly separated as one could have loved to think. In different phrases, not just do we now not difficult a syntactic description of (a fragment of) a language after which continue to the semantics (as Montague mentioned already forcefully in 1968), we can't desire to accomplish an enough built-in syntax and semantics with out paying heed to the pragmatic features of the buildings concerned. The habit of polarity goods, 'quantifiers' like several, conditionals or perhaps logical debris like and and or in non-indicative sentences is uncomplicated proof for the necessity to allow every one component to the grammar tell the other.
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Extra info for Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Languages
The following are cases in point. (56) (57) (58) Everyone who owns a donkey beats it. Everyone who owns a donkey that he likes beats it. Everyone who doesn't like a donkey beats it. In all similar cases, we can explain why 'a' has in them a universalquantifier sense. Again, this sense is not a separate meaning or separate use of the indefinite article, but an inevitable consequence ofthe way it occurs in such sentences as (56H58). It is important to realize, furthermore, that the relevance of the subgame idea is not restricted to conditionals.
Some of the pronominalization phenomena we have studied have been assimilated in the literature to the so-called 'pronouns of laziness', that is, to pronouns which merely serve as placeholders for their antecedents, irrespective of questions of coreference. It should be obvious by this time that the pronouns studied in this essay are not pronouns oflaziness. On the contrary, they serve to recover a reference to an individual which has somehow been introduced earlier. Their peculiarity lies rather in the fact that the antecedently introduced individual is somehow an 'arbitrarily chosen' or otherwise underdetermined individual.
This uncertainty is a consequence of our explanation for the unacceptability of (51) in that the 28 JAAKKO HINTIKKA AND LAURI CARLSON win: I win G(neg. Xl my strategy ~(~ 1 Nature's strategy ~ Nature wins ... G( X 1 with roles reversed Nature 's strategy Nature wins: Nature wins 6'(neg + Xl APPLICATIONS OF S UBGAMES 29 arbitrarily' selected student in (51) only serves to highlight the speaker's comment on what not all students are like. The same uncertainty shows up in another way in the fact that it is not clear on linguistic grounds alone whether the following sentences speak of flunking or nonflunking students or of students simpliciter.