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Constant returns to scale) in relation to carriage size. More realistic than a coupling cost of B * m is a cost of B0 + Bm. This feature is in fact a necessary append to the Ruggles framework, as otherwise the solution is to build carriages that carry only one person. Clearly, there must be an optimum size that is dependent on the likely number of passengers and the ability to ration. When we put all the costs together we have six costs: 1. A fixed and a variable cost for the capital of the carriages 2.

First, in assuming a linear development of profit over time we have assumed a fixed toll (if revenue is raised by tolls not subsidy). This assumes a constant environment, such as willingness to pay, number of pedestrians, and substitution options (other goods, other bridges). 14 The development of profit from a bridge with zero cost and expiry at a predetermined date. 15 Consideration of the bridge in the run up to its expiry. (A) capacity, (B) capital value, (C) a sinking fund that accumulates to an amount equal to the cost of a new bridge, and hence restoration of economic equilibrium.

The ability to identify and track an individual, the ability to deem a contract on use of the bridge, and thence the subsequent ability to enforce payment against the contract. The traffic congestion charge in London is a good example. 3. Political pressure to eliminate tolls and raise revenue by general taxation, which is in theory less regressive. 7 Summary Discussion about the Bridge This most basic example introduces most of the concepts that we need for power station planning and operation.

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