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22 in 1997, representing a 54 per cent decrease. This shows the increasing importance of other industries in Brazilian exports over the period. 22. After the Real Stabilization Plan, it increased slightly. Food and beverages remains the sector with highest CTB. Energy material, on the other hand, exhibited the largest swing in CTB. 2 Contribution to trade balance (ten-sector aggregation) 46 of 280 10/15/07 3:52 PM Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries file:///Users/jjg/Desktop/Finance%20and%20Competitiveness%20i...
Period 1 From 1974 to 1982 the country was suffering from the adverse trade balance effects of the two oil shocks. Despite implementation of import restrictions and export promotion policies, a large current account deficit mounted up over the period. The economy was nevertheless growing rapidly (7 per cent per year on average), thanks to large capital inflows. Period 2 40 of 280 10/15/07 3:52 PM Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries file:///Users/jjg/Desktop/Finance%20and%20Competitiveness%20i...
Profitability fell 20 per cent and then recovered. Both the lower price index in dollars and the profitability increase in the more recent period resulted from the ULC reduction. Summarizing the main findings in this section, three aspects may be highlighted. First, external shocks, such as the oil price hikes and external debt crisis, had crucial roles in determining both the macroeconomic environment and trade policy choices. Second, trade liberalization had a positive effect on productivity during the 1990s.