By Helen Meenan
Ecu Union equality and anti-discrimination legislations have been revolutionized through the incorporation of Article thirteen into the EC Treaty, including new anti-discrimination grounds and new probabilities. This complete 2007 quantity presents a clean method of Article thirteen and its directives; it adopts a contextual framework to equality and anti-discrimination legislations within the eu Union. half I offers with the evolution of Article thirteen, demographic and social switch and the inter-relationship among eu Equality legislation and Human Rights. half II comprises professional essays on all the Article thirteen anti-discrimination grounds: intercourse, racial or ethnic foundation, faith or trust, incapacity, age and sexual orientation, with universal topics weaving all through. This publication could be of curiosity to every body involved in battling discrimination, teachers, NGOs, attorneys, human source execs, employers, staff, examine scholars and so forth within the eu Union and past.
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25. Para. 32. Note also para. 31 where the ECJ includes as appropriate criteria in the assessment of a candidate ‘capabilities and experience which have been acquired by carrying out family work are to be taken into account in so far as they are of importance for the suitability, performance and capability of candidates’. Case C-407/98 Abrahamsson v. Fogelqvist  ECR I-5539. Evelyn Ellis EU Anti-Discrimination Law at pp. 297 and 311. Costello, ‘Positive Action’, at p. 212, seems to suggest that it is not enough to allow positive action at a national level and that genuine policy choices are required.
Article 13 and Article 14. Articles 11 and 12. The Equality Authority Report Implementing Equality for Older People (Dublin, 2002) which was drawn up in partnership with older people, also made recommendations which fed into the amendment of the Employment Equality Act 1998. Section 49A of the DDA 1995 as amended by DDA 2005.
Defrenne v. Sabena Case (Defrenne III) 149/77, paras. 26–7. Case 243/95,  ECR I-3739, para. 42. The development of social policy in the EC can be traced back to the early 1970s’ note, Council Resolution initiating the Social Action Programme of 21 January 1974. This aimed at full and better employment and ‘to attempt to reconcile the family aspirations of all concerned with their professional aspirations’. See, for example, Recitals 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11. In this volume. Recent terminology now refers to a rights-based approach to equality, see Colm O’Cinneide’s report for the European Network of Independent Experts in the nondiscrimination field, ‘Age Discrimination and European Law’ (European Commission, 2005) at p.