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It works correctly if used as shown in that section, but it also can be used incorrectly. x = 2 * iswap(&i, &j); In this expression, the value stored in x is unpredictable, because iswap does not return a value. Most pre-ANSI C compilers will not object to this statement, because by default all procedures were presumed to return an integer. With ANSI C, you can specify that iswap has the type void, thereby assuring that erroneously using iswap in an arithmetic expression will be flagged as an error.

Basic, C++, Pascal, etc. Furthermore, every step in a task must be specified, because no background knowledge can be assumed. An often used distinction is that an algorithm specifies what a process is doing, while a program specifies how the process should be done. The truth is probably somewhere between these two extremes—while an algorithm should be a clear statement of what a process is doing, it is often useful to have some level of specification of functionality in an algorithm. It is not very natural for humans to describe tasks with the kind of level of detail usually demanded by a programming language.

We begin by moving 9 from position 5 of the sequence and then comparing 9 and 18, since 18 is larger, it must be brought to the right of 9. So 18 is moved to position 5. The resulting sequence is as follows (“—” denoted an empty position in the sequence): 8 10 12 — 18 Next, 9 is compared with 12, and 12 is moved to position 4. This results in the following sequence: 8 10 — 12 18 Then 9 is compared with 10 and 10 is moved to position 3. At this time we have the sequence: 8 — 10 12 18 Finally, 9 is compared with 8.

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