By Idan Landau
1. the basic QUESTIONS OF regulate think you're a baby confronted with the daunting activity of buying the grammar of regulate on your language. You toddle round buoyantly (you could be previous three through now), sometimes bumping into acoustic indications that miraculously map to "linguistic input". a few of them sound like this: (1) a. Robin, do you need _ to play with Kittie jointly? b. Come on, allow me exhibit you the way _ to feed her. c. No Robin, Kittie does not like _ to be smacked. d. Robin, glance what you will have performed! undesirable boy! Time _ to visit mattress. out of your preserve below the kitchen desk, you could draw the next conclusions: i) Mommy is particularly mad now; ii) Kittens make rotten toys; iii) My identify needs to be Robin. except the lesson in parental regulate, you furthermore may should research anything approximately grammatical regulate. In all of the sentences above, a component is lacking (from the underlined place) that's still "filled-in" by means of your goal grammar. this is often what linguists time period the "understood topic" of the infinitive. on the way to have the capacity to comprehend such sentences and bring related ones your self, you want to determine the reference of the understood topic in each case. hence, except you're after a few great hassle with Mommy, you had greater finish that the understood topic is Robin and Mommy in (la), Robin in (Ib), Kittie in (Ic) and everybody (especially Robin!) in (ld).
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Additional resources for Elements of Control: Structure and Meaning in Infinitival Constructions
No syntactic assumption about PRO is needed; rather, PC constructions are simply uninterpretable if complement infinitivals must always denote properties. 4 The fact that this knock-down argument has never been appreciated (but see Wurmbrand 1998b: 190), let alone countered, indicates how little attention PC phenomena received in the literature. Before we can offer any theoretical analysis of PC, there is a lot of empirical ground to cover. The proper generalizations have to be motivated and the specific properties of the PC category, as opposed to EC and NOC, need to be established.
T. the antecedent of same. If we construe same with the matrix subject, we get the reading: Each of John and Mary expects to learn the language that the other expects to learn. If we construe same with PRO, we get the reading: Each of John and Mary expects to learn the language that the other will learn. On the latter reading Higginbotham writes: "The abstract [AX(X learn the same language)] corresponding to the complement of expect according to the attributive account, is not one that applies truly to John, or Mary, or any other individual: It could not, since same is construed within it, and the predicate is essentially plural.
26,62,28,63] Third, control under verbs which can take for-complements seems to be sensitive to the semantics of the matrix verb no less than control under verbs which cannot take for-complements. Manzini notes that a NOC analysis of signal, based on (i4a), would fail to rule out (14b), since controller choice is allegedly free in NOC: (14) a. b. John signaled to Mary for Bill to shave himself. [Manzini 1983, ex. 66, 67] * John signaled to Mary to shave himself. EXHAUSTIVE AND PARTIAL CONTROL 33 Chomsky & Lasnik (1977) and Pesetsky (1991) note that there is significant speaker variability on the acceptability of Jar-complements.