Ventilation Air Conditioning

Download Drinking Water Treatment Facilities by James E. Smith PDF

By James E. Smith

Describes applied sciences for upgrading present or designing new consuming water therapy amenities. Prefiltration, filtration, disinfection, and natural and inorganic contaminants are coated. specific options for small group water remedy vegetation (2500-100,000 gpd) are defined, in addition to thirteen "case studies".

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Extra resources for Drinking Water Treatment Facilities

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Adsorption takes place very quickly; sweep-floc coagulation takes longer. In adsorption, if polymers are not formed during the application process, then coagulation can occur in microseconds. Ifpolymers are formed, coagulation will still take less than a second. Sweep floc, a process that is triggered by large doses of alum, ferric chloride, and other precipitative coagulants, takes from 1 to 7 seconds to complete. Capital and operating and maintenance costs for alum, polymer, sodium hydroxide, and sulfuric acid feed systems are presented in Tables 3-3 through 3-6.

Multijet Slide Gate ~ •• C~,,~ 14 In f f'\ Source ~ 1i Mo-f-'l==lI-H-- Water /~1t+~91-1~- Flow , I I I ,------- 1 Coagulant Oiffuser Coagulant '. ·::. Front View Figure 3-3. Effective baffle, inlet, and outlet design reduces short-circuit problems. Improvements that are often overlooked can include: • • Adding inlet diffusers to improve the uniformity of the distribution of incoming water Enlarging connecting conduits to reduce flocdisrupting turbulence Adding a secondary entry baffie across the inlet to the flocculation basin to impart increased headloss for uniform water entry Improving inlet and outlet conditions will reduce basin turbulence and thus lessen floc breakup, increase detention times, and allow more efficient coagulant usage.

I 27 liquid Alum Feed POint 1 Raw Water Radial Flow DINuser To Floccu· latlon Basin ,-. Figure 3·2. 72 in Influent Pipe In·llne jet Injection mix.... settles. High-energy mixers create smaller and denser floc which settles faster and occupies less volume in the filter bed than the larger floc created by low-energy mixers. Paddle, walking-beam, and flat blade turbine mixers are known as low-energy mechanical mixers. The paddle or reel mixer operates with low tip speeds of2 to 15 revolutions per minute (rpm) to prevent floc destruction.

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