By Pradip Kar
An A-to-Z of doping together with its definition, its significance, tools of size, merits and drawbacks, homes and characteristics—and position in conjugated polymers
The versatility of polymer fabrics is increasing due to the creation of electro-active habit into the features of a few of them. the main fascinating improvement during this zone is expounded to the invention of intrinsically conductive polymers or conjugated polymers, which come with such examples as polyacetylene, polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene in addition to their derivatives. "Synmet" or "synthetic steel" conjugated polymers, with their steel features, together with conductivity, are of detailed curiosity to researchers. a space of unlimited capability and alertness, conjugated polymers have sparked huge, immense curiosity, starting in 2000 while the Nobel Prize for the invention and improvement of electrically accomplishing conjugated polymers was once provided to 3 scientists: Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa.
Conjugated polymers have a mix of properties—both steel (conductivity) and polymeric; doping provides the conjugated polymer's semiconducting quite a lot of conductivity, from insulating to low carrying out. The doping procedure is a established potent process for generating carrying out polymers as semiconducting fabric, supplying an alternative choice to inorganic semiconductors.
Doping in Conjugated Polymers is the 1st ebook devoted to the topic and gives a complete A-to-Z assessment. It information doping interplay, dopant kinds, doping innovations, and the impression of the dopant on purposes. It explains how the functionality of doped conjugated polymers is significantly encouraged via the character of the dopants and their point of distribution in the polymer, and exhibits how the electrochemical, mechanical, and optical homes of the doped conjugated polymers could be adapted by means of controlling the scale and mobility of the dopants counter ions.
The publication additionally examines doping on the nanoscale, particularly, with carbon nanotubes.
The ebook will curiosity a large variety of researchers together with chemists, electrochemists, biochemists, experimental and theoretical physicists, digital and electric engineers, polymer and fabrics scientists. it might even be utilized in either graduate and upper-level undergraduate classes on conjugated polymers and polymer technology.
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Extra resources for Doping in conjugated polymers
Here, the self-doped conjugated polymer is introduced, in which there is an ionizable functional group covalently attached with the conjugated polymer chain acting as a dopant for the polymer. The ionizabe functional group can donate smaller ion-like proton to the neighboring center of the polymer, and then this charged functional group itself maintains charge neutrality for the center. Thus, in self-doping 44 Doping in Conjugated Polymers the oxidation or reduction of the conjugated polymer occurs by the ionizable functional groups.
The big counter ion of organic dopant restricts the close packing of doped conjugated polymer chain. Thus the use of this big dopant increases the processability of the doped polymer. , acetic, citric, oxalic, and tartaric acid has been reported soluble in various common organic solvents like m-cresol, carbon tetrachloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, etc. The organic substances are very weak electrolyte but electrochemical doping can also be employed to dope the conjugated polymer. Quarternary ammonium salts of the type R4NX (where R = Alkyl, Aryl group and X = Cl−, Br−, I−, ClO4−, BF4−, PF6−, CF3SO3−, CH3C6H4SO3−) are commonly used as supporting organic electrolytes.
The co-doping process is required to improve the property and performance of the conjugated polymer. As for example, electrodeposition of polyaniline was made in different acid media (H2SO4 and HClO4) in the absence and presence of two organic acid dopants, disodium salts of naphthalene-1,5-disulphonic acid and catechol-3,5-disulphonic acid. In that study the effect of single dopant and that of organic acid dopant with inorganic acid dopant on the properties of polyaniline has been studied. The author has explained this phenomenon of inﬂuencing the properties of primary doped conjugated polymer in the presence of a second dopant as “co-doping” .