By Mica R. Endsley
This booklet is directed at human components researchers and practitioners who're engaged in designing structures to help state of affairs expertise (SA) in a wide selection of parts and is liberally illustrated with real layout examples.
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Extra resources for Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design
2. We will discuss how the SA needs of system operators can be addressed within this process. 4. 1 Requirements analysis Requirements analysis is perhaps one of the most important phases of the design process. In this phase it is necessary to translate the broad goals and objectives of the project into specific systems requirements. This analysis will include a number of different considerations. -ationnl concept that describes their vision for how the proposed system will be used. Such a concept would include the types of missions or functions that should be performed using the system and the capabilities the system should bestow on the user.
Unfortunately, in many systems there is a proliferation of lights, buzzers, alarms, and other signals that actively work to draw people's attention, frequently either misleading or overwhelming them. Less important information can be inadvertently made to look more important. For example, in one aircraft display a large ring of uncertainty was drawn around the location of aircraft symbols whose locations were determined from low reliability sensor data. This led to the unintended consequence of drawing the pilot's attention toward this less certain information and making it seem more important than other aircraft displayed that were based on more certain information and thus had much smaller circles around them, when the opposite effect was actually desired.
Automaticity can be observed in many tasks from driving a car to flying an aircraft. Automaticity is advantageous to SA because it requires very little conscious attention to process information, freeing up inental resources for other tasks. This is particularly true for automaticity of physical tasks (like steering the car or balancing on the bicyclc). 8 Autotnaticity in cogtlttive processes (from Endsiey, 2000b) It can also be a significant problem for SA, however, when automaticity of mental tasks is involved.