Semantics

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2 Sperber further proposes that these two dedicated mental mechanisms co-evolved in such a way that the fully developed version of each presupposes the development of the other. However, as Sperber argues, it still makes sense to ask which developed first to kickstart the co-evolutionary process. Dennett (1991) argues that metarepresentation evolved in response to new linguistic artefacts entering the environment. That is, language evolved first. Sperber, on the other hand, argues that metarepresentation evolved first.

Spatiotemporal (including spatial image schemas) 2. Epistemic (common ground) 3. Empathy C. Subjectivity/objectivity IV. Constitution/Gestalt (including most other image schemas) A. Structural schematization 1. Individuation (boundedness, unity/multiplicity) 2. ) 3. Scale B. Force-dynamics C. Relationality (entity/interconnection) One kind of construal operation described in Cognitive Linguistics, which involves the psychological process of constitution, is forcedynamics (Talmy 1988, 2000). Wolf and Polzenhagen (2003: 265) point out that force-dynamic patterns are, in some respects, equivalent to transitivity patterns.

3 where the heavier lines indicate the profiled portion of the action chain designated by (2), namely the interaction between the instrument in the subject (S) of the clause and the patient in the object (O). This kind of analysis, then, suggests that: although the factor of relevance is undoubtedly crucial in the omission of the agent, we may also surmise that the varied use of [mystification] strategies cognitively contributes to construct, in van Dijk’s (1998) words, ‘preferred models’ of a situation.

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