Ventilation Air Conditioning

Download Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of by Jeffrey M. Gordon PDF

By Jeffrey M. Gordon

This ebook is aimed toward these drawn to the engineering and physics of airconditioning and refrigeration units (chillers). Analytic thermodynamic types are built for a large choice of cooling platforms and a extensive variety of working stipulations. those versions are simply applied within the box or laboratory. even supposing the authors concentration upon mechanical (electrically-driven) chillers - essentially reciprocating and centrifugal machines - there's additionally enormous fabric on heat-driven absorption chillers. warmth pumps and warmth transformers also are addressed. a couple of much less universal chiller kinds also are taken care of, corresponding to thermoelectric, thermoacoustic and vortex-tube devices. the cloth is gifted in a fashion that may attract either the engineer and the physicist, and will shape a bridge among the 2 groups of their research and presentation of cooling platforms. In each one bankruptcy, the authors try and seize the elemental physics of the matter, and to emerge with quantitatively actual predictive and diagnostic instruments. they target for easy thermodynamic versions the place the practical dependences of chiller functionality at the significant working variables are obvious. And all of the types offered are required to face the try out of comparability opposed to experimental functionality facts. The reader is proven how chillers should be considered as input-output units, considered from the surface and probed with merely externally-measurable parameters corresponding to strength enter, cooling expense and coolant temperatures. measurable parameters comparable to strength enter, cooling fee and coolant temperatures. the kind of info wanted through chiller brands and builders in designing and assembling new designs is alsoprovided. How will a given amendment in a chiller part impact potency and cooling expense? what's the mixture of working stipulations of the person elements that maximizes chiller potency at a required cooling fee? the various chapters can function an industry-oriented path adapted to cooling engineers. The publication may also represent a part of a school path on cooling structures. Sections of the booklet could be integrated in introductory and complicated thermodynamics classes. either engineering-oriented and physics-oriented subject matters are coated in lots of the chapters. greater than a dozen educational examples are included.

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Extra info for Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of predictive, diagnostic and optimization methods for cooling systems

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What are the main irreversibilities? Where do these irreversibilities enter and how do they impact thermodynamic performance? Of what practical aspects of specific chiller components should the reader be aware prior to entering the realm of thermodynamic modeling? These are the issues we will try to address succinctly in this chapter. The chapter divides primarily into the two most general categories of cooling devices: work-driven (mechanical) and heat-driven (absorption). At the end of the chapter we will also look at two nonconventional chillers, based on the thermoacoustic and thermoelectric effects.

The dry compression and superheating along c–d causes the cycle to lose its rectangular shape on the T–S plot. The area that lies above the condensing temperature, often called the “superheat horn”, represents additional work associated with dry compression, and hence a reduced COP. To work with practical devices, we introduce a simple throttling valve for the adiabatic expansion branch a–b. This now becomes a constantenthalpy, and not an isentropic (although still adiabatic), process. In other words, an unavoidable irreversibility is knowingly introduced (as well as another loss of the rectangular shape of the cycle on the T–S diagram).

Measured COPs as high as 6 are reasonable. But when the thermal lift increases to the range of 40–50 K, rotor leakages increase considerably and COP drops dramatically to around 1. B7. Refrigerants Refrigerant refers to the working fluid in the chiller. , at the hot and cold reservoirs. Among the important desirable properties of a refrigerant are: (1) a high heat of vaporization, to achieve a large cooling capacity; (2) a low freezing point to avoid freezing at the low-temperature end of the cycle under extreme conditions; (3) a high critical point, to lower the required input power at the compressor; (4) an evaporation pressure of at least atmospheric pressure, to prevent air from leaking into the system; (5) a low condensation pressure, to avoid the need for expensive piping and equipment; (6) the chemical traits of non-toxicity, non-corrosiveness, non-flammability and chemical stability; and (7) low cost.

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