By Jeffrey M. Gordon
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Extra info for Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of predictive, diagnostic and optimization methods for cooling systems
What are the main irreversibilities? Where do these irreversibilities enter and how do they impact thermodynamic performance? Of what practical aspects of specific chiller components should the reader be aware prior to entering the realm of thermodynamic modeling? These are the issues we will try to address succinctly in this chapter. The chapter divides primarily into the two most general categories of cooling devices: work-driven (mechanical) and heat-driven (absorption). At the end of the chapter we will also look at two nonconventional chillers, based on the thermoacoustic and thermoelectric effects.
The dry compression and superheating along c–d causes the cycle to lose its rectangular shape on the T–S plot. The area that lies above the condensing temperature, often called the “superheat horn”, represents additional work associated with dry compression, and hence a reduced COP. To work with practical devices, we introduce a simple throttling valve for the adiabatic expansion branch a–b. This now becomes a constantenthalpy, and not an isentropic (although still adiabatic), process. In other words, an unavoidable irreversibility is knowingly introduced (as well as another loss of the rectangular shape of the cycle on the T–S diagram).
Measured COPs as high as 6 are reasonable. But when the thermal lift increases to the range of 40–50 K, rotor leakages increase considerably and COP drops dramatically to around 1. B7. Refrigerants Refrigerant refers to the working fluid in the chiller. , at the hot and cold reservoirs. Among the important desirable properties of a refrigerant are: (1) a high heat of vaporization, to achieve a large cooling capacity; (2) a low freezing point to avoid freezing at the low-temperature end of the cycle under extreme conditions; (3) a high critical point, to lower the required input power at the compressor; (4) an evaporation pressure of at least atmospheric pressure, to prevent air from leaking into the system; (5) a low condensation pressure, to avoid the need for expensive piping and equipment; (6) the chemical traits of non-toxicity, non-corrosiveness, non-flammability and chemical stability; and (7) low cost.