By E. Alfredo Campo
This imperative, all-inclusive reference advisor to plastic half layout was once compiled with the product clothier in brain, who's searching for extra designated info on plastic resins, the foundations and geometries underlying their use in product layout, and the benefits and boundaries in their use in commercial functions. The clothier also will locate useful suggestion on resin and power choice and processing parameters that permit quickly and winning product improvement and manufacture. millions of hours of study and pass referencing have long past into the of entirety of this paintings. furthermore, the hands-on wisdom of a plastics professional with greater than 35 years event is included.
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PTFE is probably best known for its low coefﬁcient of friction, lower than most other materials. It does not adhere to anything. PTFE is ﬂexible, strong and tough at temperatures as low as –320 °F. It is an opaque white or bluish-white color, but it can be formed into very thin and transparent ﬁlm. Its tensile strength ranges from 3,500–4,500 psi and its ﬂexural strength is 2,000 psi. The ﬂuorocarbon polymers are available in granular, ﬁne powder, and water base dispersion forms (8 μ in). Granular resins are used for molding and ram extrusion.
It is attacked by hot amines and swells slightly in polar organic solvents. It matches PVDF in rigidity and abrasion resistance and surpasses it in impact strength and chemical resistance. Ethylene chlorotriﬂuoroethylene is the easiest to process, whether by melt extrusion, injection, or compression molding, or by dry powder coating and rotational molding. 2 Thermoplastic Polymers Disadvantages and Limitations • Poor adhesive characteristics • Low mechanical strength at high temperatures • Comparatively high resin cost • Toxic by-products upon thermal decomposition • Not processable by common thermoplastic methods Figure 1-70 Submarine ball valves (Courtesy: Du Pont) • Requires corrosion resistant steel for processing equipment Typical Applications • Aerospace Industry: Low weight and stress crack resistance of PTFE, FEP, and ETFE are used for hose and tubing for hydraulic, fuel, oil, pneumatic, and oxygen systems.
Unlike many other polymers, the melt viscosity of PSU is relatively insensitive to shear forces. The low degree of molecular orientation during injection molding slightly affects the physical properties of the molded parts, independent of ﬂow directions of the melt ﬂow. Polysulfone sheets or molded parts may be joined to another PSU surface or to metals by direct heat sealing, adhesive bonding, solvent fusion, hot plate welding, ultrasonic welding, or heat sealing at 700 °F. Solvent fusion is accomplished with a 5% solution of PSU in a dope of methylene chloride, followed by drying at elevated temperatures as the parts are held together.