By Stacy Schiff
Her palace shimmered with onyx and gold yet was once richer nonetheless in political and sexual intrigue. mainly else, Cleopatra was once a intelligent strategist and an creative negotiator. She was once married two times, whenever to a brother. She waged a brutal civil struggle opposed to the 1st and poisoned the second one; incest and assassination have been kin specialties. She had young children via Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, of the main in demand Romans of the day. With Antony she could try and forge a brand new empire, in an alliance that spelled either their ends. well-known lengthy prior to she was once infamous, Cleopatra has long gone down in heritage for the entire flawed purposes. Her supple character and the drama of her conditions were misplaced. In a masterly go back to the classical assets, Stacy Schiff boldly separates truth from fiction to rescue the magnetic queen whose loss of life ushered in a brand new global order.
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Dawson is still a standard text to which the interested reader can turn with confidence. Alfred Lucas was another twentieth-century pioneer in the scientific study of the process of mummification. In addition to many articles on various aspects of the subject, he devoted a chapter to his findings in Ancient Egyptian materials and industries (Lucas 1962). His work has been carried on by the Egyptian, Zaki 16 WILLIAM H. 2. Predynastic burial, before 3000 Be, British Museum 32752. The typical flexed position of most predynastic burials is illustrated here, as is the high state ofpreservation resulting from the dry sand rather than a complicated embalming process.
The preservation of buried bodies in the predynastic age has already been commented on. The state of the development of the art of mummification in the early dynastic period is difficult to determine and must be inferred from the evidence of examples oflater times. From Petrie's excavation of the Royal Tombs at Abydos came the bones of an arm that was wrapped in linen and still decorated with jewelry, but this indicates only the use of wrapping and gives no indication concerning the other preparations of the body.
Embalmers' tables have been found and recognized as such. Little other comment is needed for what would have been the most obvious first stage of the working procedure. 2 The brain, one of the organs most subject to rapid putrefaction, was probably removed first; this is verified by Herodotus' account and seems practical. A passage was opened, through the nose usually, and the cerebral matter taken out with a hooked metal rod. Implements have been identified as possibly the types used for this operation.