By Robin R. Wang
Chinese language and Western thinkers think of the chinese language philosophical culture and chinese language philosophy for the modern worldwide period.
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He says: “Make complete your strength. Make solid your virtue. If your strength is complete, then the feudal lords cannot weaken you. If your virtue is solid, then the feudal lords cannot diminish you” (Xunzi, chap. 9). If one ﬁlls out the strength of one’s state and moreover uses virtue to make people submit, then this way one will “always be victorious” (Xunzi, chap. 9). Such a viewpoint is relatively more comprehensive. THE LEGALIST THEORY THAT MORALITY IS USELESS Just the opposite of the Confucians, who believe that morality is highest, Han Fei believes that morality is useless.
There are, of course, terms that refer to speciﬁc aspects of human life, such as “ren” (humaneness), “yi” (righteousness), “li” (material beneﬁt or proﬁt), “fu” (wealth), and “gui” (high social status). But none of these notions is close to the notion of value (jiazhi), since the desirability of each can be disputed. For example, Confucians dispute the importance that ordinary people attach to fu and gui and the emphasis the Moist put on li; the Daoists, however, dispute the Confucian emphasis on ren and yi.
Wang’s commentary says: “Where there is favor there is sure to be disgrace. Where there is glory there is sure to be disaster. ’”) Laozi furthermore gives evidence for the claim that “noble status and great disaster are like a body,” saying, Axiology in Pre-Modern Chinese Philosophy 23 “Although gold and jade ﬁll one’s halls, none can keep them. When wealth and nobility lead to arrogance, then one brings blame upon oneself ” (Daodejing, chap. 9). If one is arrogant toward people because of one’s wealth and noble status, in the end one is sure to encounter disaster.