By Sabu Thomas, Yves Grohens, P. Jyotishkumar
Filling the distance for a reference devoted to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this booklet offers finished, systematic assurance in a one-stop, two-volume source for all these operating within the field.
Leading researchers from and academia, in addition to from executive and personal examine associations around the globe summarize contemporary technical advances in chapters dedicated to their person contributions. In so doing, they learn quite a lot of sleek characterization thoughts, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal research, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. those tools are in comparison with one another to aid in making a choice on the simplest resolution for either primary and utilized difficulties, being attentive to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, either in blends concerning copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, section separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends also are mentioned in mild of latest insights concerning the nanoscopic scale. eventually, the authors element the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, in addition to the impact of processing at the new release of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of those morphologies at the houses of blends. sizzling issues comparable to compatibilization via nanoparticles, miscibility of recent biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends also are addressed.
With its application-oriented strategy, handpicked number of issues and specialist members, this is often a very good survey for an individual fascinated about the sector of polymer blends for complex technologies.
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Additional info for Characterization of Polymer Blends: Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
To allow comparisons in the strength of the interactions between different systems, some authors prefer to work with an arbitrarily chosen constant value for Vr, instead of changing its value from one system to another . 5 The Hildebrand Approach This approach estimates the strength of the dispersive interactions in mixtures of solvents, and is straightforwardly extended to mixtures involving polymers [8,9]. The cohesive energy, Ecoh, is deﬁned as the internal energy of vaporization (DEv) from the liquid state to the ideal gas state (where intermolecular forces are suppressed).
Experimentally observed phase diagrams in polymer blend systems may be lower critical solution temperature (LCST), upper critical solution temperature (UCST), combined UCST and LCST, hourglass-, and/or closed-loop-shaped. The most commonly observed phase diagrams are LCST (phase separation of a miscible blend during heating) and UCST (phase separation of a miscible blend during cooling). Phase separation in polymer solutions may proceed either by nucleation and growth (NG) or by spinodal decomposition (SD), or by the combination of both .
Edited by S. Thomas, Y. Grohens, and P. Jyotishkumar. Ó 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2015 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. 1 Introduction Both in case of low-molecular-weight mixtures or polymer blends, the equilibrium phase behavior is determined by the free energy of mixing of the system, DGm: DGm ¼ DHm À TDSm ð2:1Þ where DHm is the enthalpy of mixing, DSm is the entropy of mixing and T is the temperature [1–3]. To observe a single-phase system, the following two conditions must be fulﬁlled: ﬁrst DGm < 0 and second: 2 @ ðDGm Þ >0 ð2:2Þ @w2i T;p where wi represents the volume fraction of component i.