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Download Business Ratios and Formulas: A Comprehensive Guide by Steven M. Bragg PDF

By Steven M. Bragg

Required studying for someone beginning, operating, or transforming into a enterprise, enterprise Ratios and formulation, moment version places solutions on the fingertips of industrial managers, with approximately 250 operational standards and transparent, easy-to-understand factors that may be used without delay. the second one variation contains nearly fifty new ratios and formulation, in addition to new chapters protecting ratios and formulation for e-commerce and human assets.

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The formula is: Annual net sales ——————— Total equity Example: An examiner for the Friendly Tax Collection Service calls on a com- pany that has paid out no dividends for the past few years. 3. qxd 9/13/06 12:37 PM Page 11 Asset Utilization Measurements / 11 This table reveals that the company is extremely profitable, with over a million dollars being added to retained earnings in every year. The company does not appear to be using these funds, since the amount of incremental investment in fixed assets is miniscule.

An FTE is the combination of staffing that equals a 40-hour week. For example, two half-time employees would be counted as one FTE. The formula is: Annualized revenue ——————————— Total full-time equivalents A variation on this ratio is to divide annual revenues by only those FTEs that can be categorized as direct labor. This measures the productivity of those personnel who are directly connected to the manufacture of a company’s products or services. This measure should be used with care, since it is not always easy to determine which employees can be categorized as direct labor and which ones fall into the overhead category instead.

In cases where debt is coming due in the short term, and therefore is categorized as a short-term liability, it is also acceptable to include it in the denominator. The formula is: Sales —————————————————— Stockholders’ equity + Long-term liabilities Example: The CFO of Saint Nick & Elves, purveyors of fine crystal figurines, has asked a select group of current investors to invest an additional $400,000 in the company. They want to see if the company has made efficient use of their money in the past and therefore create the investment turnover calculation for the past few years to see if there is a trend in the level of sales efficiency.

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