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Download "Borodino" class armored ships by Vladimir V. Arbuzov PDF

By Vladimir V. Arbuzov

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This is why the ionosphere plays an important role in most modes of propagation. Ground waves travel between two limits, the earth and the ionosphere, which acts like a duct. Since the duct curves with the earth, the ground wave will follow. Therefore very long range propagation is possible using ground waves. Chapter 2 Propagation of Waves 32 Ionosphere Figure 2-12. Ground wave propagation. Sky Waves Radio waves in the LF and MF ranges may also propagate as ground waves, but suffer significant losses, or are attenuated, particularly at higher frequencies.

These two pieces are called side-bands because they appear on both sides of the carrier. The shape of the side-band spectrum is identical to what the spectrum of the information signal is alone. The side-band to the right, which 49 Chapter 4 Analog Modulation is referred to as the upper side-band (USB) is the same but translated up in frequency by an amount exactly equal to the modulation frequency. The lower side-band (LSB) is a mirror image of the USB. The entire signal is contained within a range of frequencies.

2. A local oscillator must be added to the receiver before demodulation. There are several benefits of SSB processing. First the bandwidth is reduced. This will make more channels available, which will be explained fully in the chapter on multiplexing. Secondly, if the carrier is suppressed, the signal efficiency will be Chapter 4 Analog Modulation 58 increased dramatically. Recall that in AM the efficiency was limited to about 33%. SSB efficiencies approach 100% (as defined by the spectrum). Lastly, in conventional AM, the carrier signal is always present regardless of the information signal.

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