By Elizabeth Frood
The Ramessid interval in Egypt (ca. 1290-1075 B.C.E.) corresponds to the overdue Bronze Age, a time of significant switch either in Egypt and the close to East. this era of empire, ruled by way of the determine of Ramesses II, witnessed the most important advancements in artwork, language, and non secular demonstrate. Biographical Texts from Ramessid Egypt bargains insights into those cultural ameliorations in the course of the voices of forty-five monks, artists, civil officers, and armed forces males who served lower than the kings of the 19th and 20th Dynasties. Sixty-five biographical texts, that have been inscribed in tombs, on statues and stelae in temples, and quite on temple partitions, supply information in their careers and personality. The metrically prepared translations are brought via descriptions of the texts enormous contexts and, the place attainable, summaries of the careers in their proprietors. the amount offers an creation to the historic history of the Ramessid interval, drawing jointly key issues and interpretive concerns raised by way of the texts and their contexts. those contain the illustration of relationships to deities and the king, the thematization of the priestly existence, and implications of alterations within the texts media, together with new ornamental courses of nonroyal tombs. This integration of textual content with context sheds mild at the which means of biographical writing in historical Egypt as a complete.
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Additional resources for Biographical Texts from Ramessid Egypt (Writings from the Ancient World)
17). Oracles, as singular moments of divine intervention, are first attested as the focus of royal monumental narratives in the early Eighteenth Dynasty (Kruchten 2001). They become a component of nonroyal, priestly biographical narrative in the Nineteenth Dynasty. The phrase “I was high priest as the gift of Amun” in the biography of Roma (no. 3c) alludes to oracular appointment (see also nos. 1, 3b, 18). One of the most elaborate developments of this motif comes from outside the priestly domain.
They mark a return to traditional themes, exemplified by the ethical biography on the massive stela of Minnakht (Urk. IV, 1530–33; Barbotin 2005, 167–69), which contrasts with the general absence of moral characterization in Amarna biography. Other texts with innovative approaches include the complex fusion of prayer and biography on one of Horemheb’s scribe statues dedicated under Tutankhamun (Winlock 1924; Lichtheim 1976, 100–103), which points toward Ramessid developments. 12 BIOGRAPHICAL TEXTS FROM RAMESSID EGYPT 3.
However, this aspect was already developed in Eighteenth Dynasty self-presentation, as in the effigy-form depiction of Thutmose III in the tomb of his vizier Rekhmire (N. de G. Davies 1943, II, pl. 13) or the king’s cult presence in the Opet festival narrated in the biography of the soldier Amenemhab under Thutmose III and Amenhotep II (Freier in Blumenthal et. al. 1984, 313). The Ramessid texts seem then to draw on and elaborate such earlier strategies. The most fully developed narration of actions performed for the king in the Ramessid corpus is in the biography of Setau, the viceroy of Nubia (no.