By David Rock
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He sought to demonstrate the "spiritual," and therefore clerical, foundations of France, arguing that the church had served as the leading institutional nucleus of the evolving national community. 77 The scheme created by Coulanges also provided a way of reconciling clerical doctrine with positivist and even Darwinist thought since the history of each nation could now be viewed as a process of ascent and selection, as positivists and Darwinists insisted it should, except that henceforth, religion and the church held center stage in the whole process.
These attempts to update the clerical counterrevolution took numerous forms. "Christianity," wrote Menéndez Pelayo, for example, "constructed the unity [of Spain]. The church educated us in our hearts by its martyrs and confessors, its fathers, the admirable system of its councils. html06-06-2010 16:00:20 page_16 < previous page page_16 next page > Page 16 exceptionally gifted minority and the "mediocre" majority. Thus, society formed a pyramid, as it did in the eyes of the counterrevolutionaries, although the "natural elite" now claimed this distinction not by virtue of birth but in accordance with the laws of natural selection.
And] taking the veil. . html06-06-2010 16:00:25 page_30 < previous page page_30 next page > Page 30 1862 and 1868, the diocese of Buenos Aires gained its own archbishop, finally freeing itself from the jurisdiction of the old colonial authorities in La Plata, Bolivia. Newly established seminaries were now training priests for the fastdeveloping cities of the pampas frontier; by 1868, the seminary in Buenos Aires, for example, had forty-eight students. Following the fall of the Bourbon queen, Isabel, in 1868, several hundred Spanish priests moved to Argentina.