By Serenella Massidda (auth.)
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Extra resources for Audiovisual Translation in the Digital Age: The Italian Fansubbing Phenomenon
This shift to proportional lettering has made it possible to maximise the use of space in subtitling terms: the letter “i” occupies less space than the letter “o” in a word, for example. Technically speaking, in fact, subtitling presents translators with two constraining factors, space and time, profoundly affecting the way subtitles appear on screen. Subtitles may be displayed with a maximum of two lines – with an average of 37/40 characters per line (depending on the subtitling company) in the case of Italian – and their exposure time ranges between one and six seconds, the ideal span of time allowing the viewer to read at an appropriate speed (Luyken et al.
0005 2 The State of the Art of Italian AVT: Dubbing Vis-à-Vis Subtitling Abstract: The main AVT modes adopted in Italy are examined in this section, highlighting the state of the art of these modes of transfer currently being challenged by the radical transformation experienced by the increasingly globalised film industry. After an introduction to the perennial dichotomy between dubbing and subtitling, the well-known classification between northern and southern European countries is analysed. While, in the first section, the tradition of dubbing in Italy is illustrated from the advent of the first silent “talkie” in the late 1920s until the present day, in the last section contemporary Italian subtitling industry is described, with a particular emphasis on the impact of changed market conditions, as well as the current professional identity crisis.
1991; Ivarsson, 1992; Gottlieb, 1998; Ivarsson and Carroll, 1998; Kovacic, 1991; De Linde and Kay 1999; Díaz Cintas, 2001 and 2003; Chaume, 2004; Díaz Cintas and Remael, 2007; Georgakopoulou, 2003). According to De Linde and Kay, “the main condition of subtitling stems from the integration of text, sound and image, the reading capabilities of target viewers, and the restrictions which these two factors place on space and time” (1999:6). This definition is a clever attempt at condensing a variety of fundamental traits characteristic of subtitling into a few lines.