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Download ATP and the Heart by Joanne S. Ingwall Ph.D. (auth.) PDF

By Joanne S. Ingwall Ph.D. (auth.)

ATP performs a critical position within the best factors of cardiac morbidity and mortality within the western international: ischemia and middle failure. we're in our infancy utilizing what's identified approximately biology and chemistry of ATP towards constructing powerful treatments for those ailments. during this quantity, the present knowing of the chemistry and biology of ATP in particular within the cardiomyocyte is gifted. New insights into ATP were gleaned utilizing biophysical strategies permitting dynamic size of chemical occasions within the intact beating center and utilizing new animal versions during which cardiac proteins are both over expressed, deleted or harbor particular mutations.

This ebook offers a precis of the fundamental knowing and contains illustrations of why ATP and the Heart is critical to either the clinician and scientist.

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The energy released from the hydrolysis of ATP - an energetically favorable reaction - is "used" to drive ATP utilizing reactions which are energetically unfavorable, such as moving ions against their concentrations gradients (such as Na+ efflux from the cell) or changing the conformation of proteins (such as myosin). This is the most fundamental "coupling" in biology and is the basis of the premise given in all the standard biochemistry textbooks that ATP is the universal currency of energy in biological systems.

17. Weiss IN, Lamp ST. Glycolysis preferentially inhibits ATP-sensitive K+ channels in isolated guinea pig cardiac myocytes. Science. 1987;238:67-69. 18. Saks VA, Ventura-Clapier R, Huchua ZA, Preobrazhensky AN, Emelin IV. Creatine kinase in regulation of heart function and metabolism. I. Further evidence for compartmentation of adenine nucleotides in cardiac myofibrillar and sarcolemmal coupled ATPase-creatine kinase systems. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1984;803:254-264. 19. de Groof AJ, Fransen JA, Errington RJ, Willems PH, Wieringa B, Koopman WJ.

E. 1 J1M to only ~ 1 J1M, a factor of 104 less than is produced. It is not surprising that the many mechanisms designed to maintain normal pH in the cell fail to buffer this extraordinary proton load. Instead, it is surprising that the intracellular pH falls by only 1 pH unit. Before we begin the description of the individual ATP utilizing and synthesizing reactions and how they are regulated in normal and diseased states, in this chapter we will review the two ways chemists use to define reactions and how they are regulated: enzyme kinetics and thermodynamics.

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