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9 for chamfered or rounded configurations. For gas flows at pressure ratios below the choking critical [Equation (24)], the mass rate of flow is Pd ( k – 1 ) ⁄ k Pu P · m = C d A o C 1 ----------- -------d- 1 – ------ P u T u Pu Valve Action in Pipeline (36) where C1 k R T u, d = = = = = 2k ⁄ R ( k – 1 ) ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume gas constant absolute temperature subscripts referring to upstream and downstream positions Incompressible Flow in Systems Flow devices must be evaluated in terms of their interaction with other elements of the system, for example, the action of valves in modifying flow rate and in matching the flow-producing device Fig.
Complicated problems can be solved by graphical or numerical methods such as described by Croft and Lilley (1977), Adams and Rogers (1973), and Patankar (1980). Analogy to Electrical Conduction. Equation (2) is analogous to Ohm’s law for electrical circuits: thermal current (heat flow) in a thermal circuit is directly proportional to the thermal potential (temperature difference) and inversely proportional to the thermal resistance. This electrical-thermal analogy can be used for heat conduction in complex shapes that resist solution by exact analytical means.
PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. M. F. Wislicenus, ed. 1969 (discussion 1970). Cavitation state of knowledge. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York. Ross, D. 1956. Turbulent flow in the entrance region of a pipe. ASME Transactions 78:915. Schlichting, H. 1979. Boundary layer theory, 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. L. B. Wylie. 1979. Fluid mechanics, 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. D. 1947. Air flow measurement in the laboratory. Refrigerating Engineering: 515. CHAPTER 3 HEAT TRANSFER Heat Transfer Processes ...........................................................