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By Ato Kwamena Onoma

Utilizing comparative situations from Guinea, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, this research explains why a few refugee-hosting groups release large-scale assaults on civilian refugees whereas others chorus from such assaults even if inspired to take action via nation officers. Ato Kwamena Onoma argues that those assaults ensue the place governments instigate them due to hyperlinks among a number of refugees and significant competition teams within the host state. there's an expanding tendency for students to target militarized refugees and consider refugees as propagators, rather than sufferers, of violence. Onoma reorients the research of refugees again to a spotlight at the disempowered civilian refugees that represent the vast majority of refugees even in instances of serious refugee militarization, and gives feedback for broader knowing of and coverage innovations for refugee politics and violence.

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These laws construct them as quintessential sojourners. 4 At the heart of the concept of the refugee is this understanding of the relationship between space and rights. The globe is neatly divided into nation-states. People belong to and own rights in certain states. Their departure from their state thus spells a loss of certain key rights. This loss of rights is more pronounced for the refugee inasmuch as, unlike other migrants, he or she is constructed as a temporary seeker of refuge who will return in due course.

Katharina Inhetveen notes that Angolan refugees in Zambia resorted to their powerlessness to explain many of the negative things that plagued their existence. “‘Because we are refugees:’ utilizing a label,” New Issues in Refugee Research 130 (October 2006): 8. This is a point that others have also made. ” and Beth Whitaker, “Refugees in Western Tanzania: the distribution of burdens and benefits among local hosts,” Journal of Refugee Studies 15 (2002). 26 Explaining Generalized Anti-Refugee Violence 27 Part of the reason for the disempowerment of refugees lies in international laws governing refugees.

Howard Adelman and John Sorenson (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994), 150. See the following works for more on refugee warriors: Stephen Stedman and Fred Tanner, “Refugees as resources in war,” Refugee manipulation: war, politics, and the abuse of human suffering, ed. in Stephen Stedman and Fred Tanner (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003); Peter Nyers, Rethinking refugees: beyond states of emergency (New York: Routledge, 2006), xvii–xviii & 99; Mathews, “Refugees and stability,” 72; and Howard Adelman, “The use and abuse of refugees,” in Refugee manipulation: war, politics, and the abuse of human suffering, ed.

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