Semantics

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By Hinrich Schütze

This quantity is worried with how ambiguity and ambiguity solution are realized, that's, with the purchase of different representations of ambiguous linguistic kinds and the data priceless for choosing between them in context. Schütze concentrates on how the purchase of ambiguity is feasible in precept and demonstrates that specific sorts of algorithms and studying architectures (such as unsupervised clustering and neural networks) can be triumphant on the activity. 3 different types of lexical ambiguity are handled: ambiguity in syntactic categorisation, semantic categorisation, and verbal subcategorisation. the amount offers 3 diversified versions of ambiguity acquisition: Tag area, notice house, and Subcat Learner, and addresses the significance of ambiguity in linguistic illustration and its relevance for linguistic innateness.

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BE + Xn + "-ing" + 'present occurrence of the meaning denoted by Xn Xn denotes a slot that can be filled by words. SD patterns and words form an abstract mental representation in which an SD pattern is linked with all words that have occurred in its variable slot Xn. SD patterns are linked with each other if they share a large number of lexical items. For example, the two patterns in (17) are linked because most verbs occur in both patterns, (page 193) In Maratsos and Chalkley's theory, this system is used productively by following paths from a word to its known SD patterns and from the known SD patterns to new SD patterns.

A multi-dimensional real-valued space is quite different from the attribute-value representations commonly used in unification grammars such as FUG, LFG and HPSG (Kay, 1984, 1986; Kaplan and Bresnan, 1982; Pollard and Sag, 1995). However, the differences are smaller than they appear at first. It has been pointed out by Chomsky that hierarchical category systems (of which attribute-value representations are a generalization) are able to represent degrees of grammaticality and thus gradience: [...

It is obvious how [... ] a degree of grammaticalness can be assigned to any sequence of formatives when the generative grammar is supplemented by a hierarchy of categories. The degree of grammaticalness is a measure of the remoteness of an utterance from the generated set of perfectly well-formed sentences [... , the more detailed the specification of selectional restrictions) the more elaborate will be the stratification of utterances into degrees of grammaticalness. (Chomsky 1961:237) From this perspective, the real-valued space is the limit of a process of introducing increasingly fine distinctions.

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